------------------------------------------------------------------- DAWN WIRE SERVICE ------------------------------------------------------------------- Week Ending : 4 November 2000 Issue : 06/42 -------------------------------------------------------------------
Contents | National News | Business & Economy | Editorials & Features | Sports
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CONTENTS ===================================================================
NATIONAL NEWS + Talks on water issue on 11th November + US wants Pakistan, India to begin talks + US paper echoes Pakistan dilemma on Afghanistan + New Air Chief designated + Sharifs counsel told to move SC + Islamabad asks UN to save Kashmiris + Pakistan on US list of drug-producing states + Kulsoom reads out Nawaz's message + PML, PPP agree to be tolerant + Direct election for Nazims, Dy Nazims + Mystery still shrouds mummy's origin + Shaukat says he is not resigning --------------------------------- BUSINESS & ECONOMY + Pakistan will not default on debts + Staff report cleared by IMF + Traders' strike in Peshawar + Banks to give Rs4bn to NADRA + ECC to settle money row between two ministries + Pakistan, China agree to implement 40 projects + Hubco welcomes Kapco settlement + CE rejects private firm's royalty claim + Explore new markets, CE asks exporters + Tax notices being sent to Karachi residents + Misuse of tax officials power to be checked --------------------------------------- EDITORIALS & FEATURES + Philistines Ardeshir Cowasjee + Surrealism across a bleak landscape Ayaz Amir + A discourse of the deaf Irfan Husain ----------- SPORTS + Match-fixing: CE to handle the matter, says Tarar + Pakistan defeat England by 6 wkts; Win one-day series

Talks on water issue on 11th November
Rauf Klasra

ISLAMABAD, Nov 3: The federal government has called a meeting of 
the provincial representatives on Nov 11 for the equal 
redistribution of irrigation water shortage for Rabi-2000.

The meeting will review the expected 33 per cent irrigation water 
shortage and reallocate the water share to the NWFP, Balochistan 
and Punjab on the basis of Water Accord 1991, instead of the 
existing practice of historical use.

Official sources told Dawn on Friday that the chief executive had 
desired a meeting of the Indus River System Authority represented 
by the provinces so that the water could be redistributed in the 
light of Sindh government's demand.

The Sindh government had objected to the IRSA's last year's 
decision to distribute water shortage between Punjab and Sindh, 
under historical use. It demanded that the NWFP and Balochistan 
should also share the water shortage under the Water Accord-1991.

The CE agreed to Sindh's version and had asked for equal 
distribution of water shortage to address the province's complaint.

Sources said the federal government had asked IRSA to hold a 
meeting on Nov 4, which will now be held on Nov 11, for the 
provinces to send their views on law division's comments on water 
shortage, advising the IRSA to refer the Sindh government demand to 
the Council of Common Interest (CCI) which was the competent forum 
to decide such high-level issues of water distribution.

US wants Pakistan, India to begin talks

WASHINGTON, Nov 1: The United States would like India and Pakistan 
to engage in bilateral discussions on security issue, John Holum, 
undersecretary of state for international security and arms control 
said in an interview here.

The text of the exchanges was released by the State Department 

Asked what short-term nonproliferation measures the US wanted India 
and Pakistan to adopt to bring more stability to South Asia and 
what prospects were there for achieving them, Holum replied, "There 
are a few steps: CTBT signature and ratification, cessation of the 
production of fissile materials and support for Fissile Material 
Cut-off Treaty negotiations in the Conference on Disarmament, 
restraining nuclear and missile developments, and adoption of 
strict export controls. 

"We would also like to see India and Pakistan engage in bilateral 
discussions on security issues."

He went on to say, We want to prevent the situation from getting 
any worse. Unfortunately, we haven't made any great headway in any 
of those areas. -APP

US paper echoes Pakistan dilemma on Afghanistan
By Tahir Mirza

WASHINGTON, Nov 1: Pakistan's Afghanistan dilemma is reflected in a 
report published here on Wednesday in the wake of a widening 
conflict within Afghanistan itself and growing concern that the 
United States may be preparing to hit Afghanistan in retaliation 
for the bombing of the USS Cole.

 Foreign Minister Abdul Sattar has warned that Pakistan will not 
let its air space be used for any US attack on Afghanistan, a stand 
reiterated on Monday by a foreign ministry spokesman in Islamabad 
who said any such strike would only aggravate matters and would 
'resolve nothing'.

The fears have been precipitated by suspicions that the Cole 
incident may be linked to Osama bin Laden or his organization. The 
US had launched a missile hit against alleged Osama bases in 1998 
following the bombings of two American embassies in east Africa.

In a report filed from Peshawar in Wednesday's Washington Post, the 
paper's correspondent, Pamela Constable, says Chief Executive 
General Pervez Musharraf has resisted US and Russian requests to 
prod the Taliban into turning over Osama for prosecution. The 
correspondent quotes Pakistani analysts as saying 'competing 
domestic and foreign pressures have paralyzed Musharraf over 
Afghanistan. Musharraf needs the support of the United States to 
obtain badly needed Western loans and investment, and he does not 
want to antagonize Russia and Iran', which support Ahmad Shah 
Masood's Northern Alliance.

 At the same time, the report asserts, Pakistan does not want to 
confront the Taliban, 'in part because of its close links with 
Pakistani religious groups that supply fighters and weapons for the 
guerrilla war against Indian troops in the disputed region of 
Kashmir. Influential sectors of the religious and military 
establishment also support the Taliban's brand of Islam '

 The PML leader, Raja Zafarul Haq, told the Washington Post 
correspondent: 'Pakistan's relationship with the Taliban is very 

New Air Chief designated

ISLAMABAD, Nov 2: Air Marshal Mushaf Ali Mir has been designated as 
the next Chief of the Air Staff.

According to a press release issued by the PAF directorate of 
public relations here on Thursday, Air Marshal Mushaf Ali Mir will 
take over the command of the PAF from Air Chief Marshal Parvaiz 
Mehdi Qureshi on Nov 20.

Born on March 5, 1947, Air Marshal Mushaf Ali Mir completed his 
initial education from the Government College in Lahore and was 
commissioned in the General Duties (Pilot) Branch of the PAF in Jan 

Apart from serving as a fighter pilot in various squadrons of the 
PAF, he qualified flying instructors' and combat commanders' 
courses. His career includes command of a fighter squadron, a 
fighter wing, an operational base and a regional air command of the 

He has also held prestigious staff appointments, such as director 
operations, chief project director, project falcon, assistant chief 
of air staff (plans) and chief project director, project green 

Sharifs counsel told to move SC
Staff Reporter

LAHORE, Nov 3: The government's failure to ensure law and order 
cannot be used as a pretext for shifting judicial proceedings to 
remote areas to the prejudice of the rights of the accused, Sharif 
family counsel argued before Chief Justice Falak Sher of the Lahore 
High Court on Friday.

The CJ heard the arguments of Barristers Saleem Sahgal and Ashtar 
Ausaf Ali against holding of accountability trials in Attock Fort 
from 9am to 3:30pm with breaks for tea and Friday prayers. Advocate 
Abdus Sattar Najam will make submissions on behalf of former PPP 
senator Asif Ali Zardari on Monday followed by NAB Deputy 
Prosecutor-General Naveed Rasul Mirza's rebuttal.

The CJ told the lawyers that he was not adjudicating vires of the 
National Accountability Bureau Ordinance nor the merits of the 
references sought to be transferred. He was concerned with the 
legality of cases' transfer to and from Attock and they should 
confine their arguments to this matter. If they wanted him to stay 
the proceedings, they should approach the LHC full bench hearing 
petitions against NAB orders or the Supreme Court, which has 
admitted petitions challenging the ordinance.

The lawyers submitted that the NAB chairman's power to assign cases 
to accountability courts was too wide and unbridled to facilitate 
fair trials. The manner of its exercise by him has further vitiated 
the proceedings. The NAB chief addressed a communication directly 
to the LHC registrar for a general transfer of cases without 
specifying references. Even the NAB prosecutor-general was not 
taken into confidence and it was only when the CJ decided to take 
up the matter on judicial side that he was inducted in the 

The NAB chief, the lawyers submitted, gave no reasons for transfer 
of cases and it was the prosecutor-general who pressed security 
reasons but he too only expressed apprehensions. The apprehensions 
are belied by record. Sharif family members regularly appear in the 
Ittefaq Foundries reference before a Lahore accountability court 
but no untoward incident has been reported so far. Neither the 
accused nor their counsel nor prosecutors nor the accountability 
judges hearing cases in Lahore have reported any threat to their 
life or limb.

Even if there are genuine security reasons, it is for the presiding 
officers (accountability judges) to pass an order and hold a trial 
in jail. Z A Bhutto and Benazir Bhutto were tried in Lahore and 
Nawaz Sharif was tried in Karachi without risking breach of peace. 
It is for the judge concerned to seek shifting of a trial. If 
prosecutors are allowed to choose trial venues, they will choose 
places where defence may become well nigh impossible and this is 
exactly what has happened in the cases being tried in Attock Fort. 
Right of access to justice is a fundamental right and trials at 
Attock impinge on this right, they said.

Islamabad asks UN to save Kashmiris

UNITED NATIONS, Nov 2: Pakistan on Wednesday told the UN General 
Assembly that the Indian repression in occupied Kashmir has 
"crossed all bounds of civilized behaviour" and asked the world 
body to intervene to save the lives of innocent Kashmiris.

Speaking on the "Question of Human Rights" Pakistan's Ambassador 
Shamshad Ahmad said that "the people of Jammu and Kashmir, who are 
struggling for their inalienable right to self-determination, as 
mandated by numerous UN Security Council resolutions, are being 
subjected to brutal repression by 700,000 strong Indian occupation 

"Everyday dozens of Kashmiri youth are killed in cold blood. Fake 
encounters, midnight searches, rape, abductions, torture, custodial 
disappearances, summary and extra-judicial killings, humiliation 
and arbitrary detentions have become routine occurrences in the 
occupied state. Indian occupation forces have also created 
mercenaries cadres known as "renegade militants" to teach Kashmiris 
a lesson."

Ahmad pointed out that "the Indian atrocities in Kashmir are well 
documented by international human rights organizations. Last year, 
Asia Watch in its report "India: Behind the Kashmir Conflict" had 
urged the UN General Assembly to condemn abuses by Indian security 
forces in Kashmir and ask India to permit relevant UN working 
groups and Special Rapporteur to visit Kashmir. It also called upon 
the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights to visit Kashmir and 
submit findings of her investigations on human rights abuses to the 
Security Council and the General Assembly.

The Amnesty International in its latest report for 1999, has 
observed: "Reports of disappearances" were received from Kashmir 
... Attempts by relatives in Jammu and Kashmir to establish the 
fate of individuals continued to be obstructed by the state, the 
security forces and an inadequate legal system. No substantive 
response was received from the government to an AI report on 
"disappearances" ... which referred to between 7000-8000 people 
whose fate remained unknown."

Referring to the case of massacre of Sikhs last year Ahmad said 
"the Special Rapporteur on Religious Intolerance in para 30 of his 
report (A/55/280) has referred to massacre of Sikhs in occupied 
Kashmir coinciding with the visit of the US President to India in 
March this year. Independent evidence suggests that this gruesome 
crime was committed by renegade elements on behest of Indian 
intelligence agencies. I would like to quote from a well researched 
article entitled "Death in Kashmir" written by a respected Indian 
scholar Mr Pankaj Mishra in the New York Review of Books on 21 
September 2000. Mr Pankaj Mishra writes:

"The Indian failure to identify or arrest even a single person 
connected to the killings or the killers, and the hastiness and 
brutality of the Indian attempt to stick the blame on "foreign 
mercenaries" while Clinton was still in India, only lends weight to 
the new and growing suspicion among Sikhs that the massacre in 
Chittisinghpura was organized by Indian intelligence agencies in 
order to influence Clinton, and the large contingent of influential 
American journalists accompanying him, into taking a much more 
sympathetic view of India as a helpless victim of terrorists in 
Pakistan and Afghanistan: a view of India that some very hectic 
Indian diplomacy in the West had previously failed to achieve."

Pakistan on US list of drug-producing states
Tahir Mirza

WASHINGTON, Nov 2: Pakistan and India are among states mentioned by 
President Bill Clinton in his annual report on major illicit drug-
producing or drug-transit countries sent to Congress on Wednesday.

Heading the list is Afghanistan, followed by the Bahamas, Bolivia, 
Brazil, Burma, Cambodia, China, Colombia, Dominican Republic, 
Ecuador, Guatemala, Haiti, India, Jamaica, Laos, Mexico, Nigeria, 
Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Thailand, Venezuela and Vietnam.

In a letter sent to the leadership of four congressional 
committees, the president says he has removed Hong Kong and Taiwan 
from the list of major drug-producing or transit countries, but 
added them to the list of countries and regions "of concern".

The president said: "I wish to make clear that a country's presence 
on the list of major drug-transit countries is not necessarily an 
adverse reflection on its counter-drug efforts or on the level of 
its cooperation with the United States. Among the reasons that 
major drug-transit countries are placed on the list is the 
combination of geographical, commercial, and economic factors that 
allow drugs to transit through a country, in many cases despite the 
most assiduous enforcement measures."

The president also expressed concern over the rising imports of 
foreign-origin, illegal synthetic drugs into the United States, 
especially MDMA ("Ecstasy"), from Europe. "We are still collecting 
information on this problem, and it is a trend that bears watching 
closely in future years."

Explaining his decision to remove Hong Kong from the list, 
President Clinton said seizure rates in both the United States and 
Hong Kong suggest that trafficking organizations are no longer 
using Hong Kong as a transit point for US-destined heroin. Since 
1996, there have been no significant seizures in the United States 
of heroin linked with Hong Kong. Similarly, the Hong Kong 
authorities report that in the past two years they have made no 
large seizures locally of heroin destined for the US.

On Iran, President Clinton's letter\report says while Iran was once 
a traditional opium-producing country, the government there appears 
to have been successful in eradicating significant illicit opium, 
poppy cultivation. The latest US survey of the country revealed no 
detectable poppy cultivation in the traditional growing areas. 
Although one cannot rule out some cultivation in remote parts of 
the country, it is unlikely that it would be sufficient to meet the 
threshold definition of a major illicit drug producing country 
under section 481(e)(2) of the Foreign Assistance Act, the 
president said.

He added: "Important quantities of opiates reportedly continue to 
transit Iran en route to Europe, but I have no evidence that these 
drugs significantly affect the United States, a requirement for 
designation as a major drug-transit country under section 481(e)(5) 
of the Foreign Assistance Act. Moreover, Iran has taken extensive 
measures to thwart the use of its territory by drug traffickers, 
seizing well above 200 metric tons of drugs annually in recent 

Kulsoom reads out Nawaz's message

LAHORE, Nov 1: Mian Nawaz Sharif has warned that as a prisoner he 
can be more dangerous for the rulers than as a free man. He thinks 
that those in power are not aware of the reality.

The deposed prime minister said this in a message his wife Kulsoom 
read out to reporters at her Model Town residence here on 

She had met Mr Sharif in Attock Fort on Tuesday and had sought his 
instructions for the party.

While some PML leaders are opposed to the efforts being made for an 
alliance with the GDA, Mr Sharif insists that cooperation between 
the two major political parties of the country is imperative for 
the restoration of democracy.

He said there was a dire need for an end to political confrontation 
and introducing a new political culture in society.

Both the major parties and the other GDA components, Mr Sharif 
said, should work out a national agenda for the future and give the 
nation an undertaking that in case of revival of democracy as a 
result of their joint struggle, they would shun intolerance, 
victimization, mud slinging and dictatorial tendencies witnessed in 
the past.

Also, he said, political parties should assure the nation that in 
future no political party would become a part to any conspiracy 
against any elected institution.

The PML president said political parties should pledge to work for 
the promotion of national integrity.

In the future, he said, there should be a working relationship 
between the government and the opposition.

Meanwhile, PML secretary-general Saranjaam Khan said that he would 
set a date for the CWC meeting during the next few days.

The meeting is being called under instructions from the party 

Mr Khan said he would hold consultations with all relevant party 
leaders before fixing the date.

The meeting, he said, would discuss the political situation in the 
country and the need for an alliance between the PML and the GDA.

Mr Khan said a workers' convention would also be held by the end of 
the month. A date for it would also be decided by the party's CWC.

In a related development, the PML Labour Wing strongly opposed the 
efforts being made for alliance between the PML and the GDA. The 
wing's central president Faqir Husain Bukhari said at a news 
conference that the PPP was the major component of the GDA with 
which the PML had, has and would continue to have ideological 

Having branded the PPP leadership as traitor and anti-state, Mr 
Bukhari said, there was no justification for the PML leadership to 
join hands with its adversaries for their personal interests.

"The PML workers will not allow anyone to turn the party into 
People's League nor accept alliance with the anti-state elements 
and thieves."

PML, PPP agree to be tolerant 
Faraz Hashmi

ISLAMABAD, Oct 30: The Pakistan People's Party (PPP) and Pakistan 
Muslim League (PML) have agreed on a code 

of conduct which includes a clause that if any one of them got 
voted to power the other would not destabilize the government and 
would sit on the opposition benches till next elections.

"There is a dire need for such a code of conduct for democracy to 
take roots in the country," Syed Zafar Ali Shah, a key player in 
the efforts being made to bring the two major parties on a 
platform, told Dawn on Monday.

"It will be a unique alliance in the political history of the 
country," he said, adding that Begum Kulsoom Nawaz will present the 
code, along with a report of the recent talks with GDA leaders, to 
party President Nawaz Sharif, in a day or two.

"It is very unfortunate that the members of the two main political 
parties start tearing each other's clothes after elections," he 

Shah said, "mudslinging and leg-pulling provides an excuse for the 
military to step in and disrupt the democratic system."

He said an elected government had every right to complete its term 
of five years. However, Shah did not comment on the question of 

He said it has also been proposed that the next general elections 
should be held under a government of national consensus, with 
representatives from all the political parties.

After the president's approval the proposal would be presented to 
the central working committee of the party for endorsement.

The CWC meeting would be convened before November 15, when GDA is 
expected to meet to finalize modalities to include PML in a grand 
alliance, whose name is yet to be proposed.

In a statement, PML media secretary Mian Anwar-ul-Haq Ramay said 
that the high-level meeting with GDA was in fact declaration of 
jehad against dictatorship and military rule, which had brought the 
country to the verge of breakup.

Ramay announced that a meeting of its CWC and parliamentary party 
would be convened shortly to take both the forums into confidence 
about its dialogue with the GDA for restoration of democracy.

Direct election for Nazims, Dy Nazims
Bureau Report

ISLAMABAD, Oct 29: The government has decided that Nazims and 
Deputy Nazims at Union Council level should be elected directly by 
the people instead of being elected by the members.

However, the Nazims and Deputy Nazims for other tiers of the local 
bodies institutions, elections for which would be held in July 
2001, would be elected indirectly.

The major change in the devolution plan was announced today by the 
Chairman of the National Reconstruction Bureau Chairman, Lt-Gen 
(retd) Syed Tanwir Naqvi, through a press release.

Earlier it was announced that Nazims and Deputy Nazims at all 
levels of the local bodies institutions would be elected by the 
members of the respective local bodies institution.

The press release said that the Nazims and Naib Nazims for the 
Union Councils would though be elected directly but as joint 

The press release said that the decision to change the election 
procedure for electing Nazim and Deputy Nazim has been taken by 
Chief Executive General Pervez Musharraf.

"Respecting the desire of the masses, the government has decided to 
hold elections of Nazims and Naib Nazims of the Union Councils 
along with the elections of the 19 Union Councillors of each Union 
Council," the press release said.

Mystery still shrouds mummy's origin

KARACHI, Oct 28: Three international institutions of archaeological 
studies have expressed their willingness to help Pakistani experts 
in the investigations on the mummified body of a princess.

These institutions are Manchester Museum, UK; Victoria Museum, 
Australia; and Nebraska University, US, sources in the National 
Museum of Pakistan where the mummified body has been kept under 
intense security.

The mummy was produced before newsmen a couple of days ago.

Information gathered at the museum also showed that the Manchester 
Museum has the largest collection of research on mummies. The other 
institutions also have useful information on the subject, which 
could come handy in carrying out investigations on the mummified 

Besides, the Lahore Museum has informed the museum authorities in 
Karachi that there was a Lahore-based person who could decipher the 
script written on the sarcophagus.

Once the script is properly deciphered, the mystery shrou-ding the 
origin of the mummified body is expected to be solved.

It has also been learnt that the mummified body is expected to be 
put on display for public viewing some time next month.

At present, the mummy is under observation and the experts are 
examining whether any biological or environmental degradation has 
taken place on the body which has weathered about 2,600 years.

Shaukat says he is not resigning
Bureau Report

ISLAMABAD, Nov 3: Finance Minister Shaukat Aziz on Friday 
repudiated reports that he had resigned and said some people were 
out to derail the new IMF programme for Pakistan.

"Nobody is indispensable but my efforts to get certain new IMF 
programme for Pakistan are perhaps not going well with the vested 
interest," he told Dawn.

Mr Aziz stated that he had not resigned nor had any intention to do 
so and that he would keep working for improving the economy against 
all odds.

In reply to a question, he said the Letter of Intent had been 
delayed due to the absence of the IMF's managing director and 
deputy MD from Washington. "But let me assure you that it is on the 

The finance minister further said that an understanding had been 
reached with the IMF on various issues to get its aid programme 
resumed shortly.

He said that differences with Hubco were being narrowed on tariff 
and administrative issues, adding that the recent agreement with 
the Kot Addu power company would lead to the settlement of the 
Hubco dispute.

Pakistan will not default on debts
Hasan Akhtar

ISLAMABAD, Oct 31: Pakistan is determined not to default on its 
foreign loans, the Foreign Office spokesman told a news briefing on 

In reply to a question how would Islamabad cope with the possible 
"state of isolation" if a default led to adverse foreign reaction 
and containment of international relations, spokesman Riaz A. Khan 
said he regarded the allusion to Pakistan's possible isolation as 
"speculative" and contrary to his assertion that it would not 

He said military skirmishes on the Pakistan-India border and along 
the Line of Control solved nothing and instead they aggravated the 
already tense situation.

Pakistan, he said, was maintaining close vigilance to deter any 
aggressive designs from the Indian side and hoped that New Delhi 
would lower the military tension.

Indian military exercises close to the Pakistan border were being 
kept under observation, he said and added that field commanders on 
both sides could use hot-line to defuse tension.

The spokesman regretted that India had missed an opportunity for 
dialogue and peace process by imposing preconditions to the July 24 
ceasefire offered by one of the Kashmiri freedom groups. The Indian 
demand that peace talks should be held under the framework of the 
Indian constitution was tantamount to asking the Kashmiris to 
renounce their half-a-century-old struggle.

New Delhi, he believed, had sought to create divisions within the 
Kashmiris' freedom movement and in its relations with Pakistan by 
proposing the pre-condition. India, he pointed out, had earlier 
proposed that talks could be held in the interest of Insaniyat, but 
later it changed its stance.

Replying to another question, the spokesman said Pakistan strictly 
scrutinized arms purchase requests from foreign countries to ensure 
that they conformed to international conventions and were for self-
defence by the friendly buyers.

Pakistan's entry in the arms market was perfectly legitimate, he 
said, adding that Islamabad had entered the legitimate world market 
for sale of military equipment of its own making.

He told a questioner that Pakistan had no reservations on the 
proposed gas pipeline from Iran to India via Pakistan. 

The chief executive, Gen Pervez Musharraf, would lead the Pakistan 
delegation to the Doha OIC Summit which would be held from Nov 12 
to 14, with the Palestine issue in focus of its deliberations.

Agencies add: Pakistan said that any resort to "violence" by the 
United States in its row with Afghanistan over Osama bin Laden 
would be futile.

"Any initiation of violence would only complicate the matter and 
aggravate the situation. It will resolve nothing," the FO spokesman 

Dismissing as "speculation" fears of imminent US strikes against 
Afghanistan, he said: "We think such violence must not take place.

In reply to a question if there was any move to oust Pakistan from 
NAM, which was scheduled to meet in Dhaka by the end of next year, 
he said it was false.

Staff report cleared by IMF
Bureau Report

ISLAMABAD, Nov 3: Finance Secretary Younus Khan said on Friday that 
the IMF had cleared the staff report on Pakistan recommending 
resumption of assistance.

"We have been informed that the IMF has cleared and approved the 
staff report on Pakistan which will now come to us any time, today 
or tomorrow."

Talking to Dawn, Mr Khan pointed out that once the staff report was 
received, it would be sent back to Washington with a covering 
letter that is called Letter of Intent (LoI). "This LoI is a kind 
of memorandum and not any agreement needing to be signed between 
the two sides," he explained.

Traders' strike in Peshawar
Mohammed Riaz

PESHAWAR, Nov 3: The city traders observed a complete shutdown on 
Friday and about 12 shopkeepers were arrested after a hide-and-seek 
with the police who used tear gas shells to disperse them at Chowk 
Yadgar, Pipal Mandi and in other localities.

Haleem Jan, a top leader of the traders, who had gone into hiding 
after police raids on his residence on Thursday night, told Dawn by 
telephone that a complete shutdown would be observed throughout the 
province on Saturday.

The police had also raided the residence of Shaukatullah Hamdard 
thrice, he said.

He stated that their protest would continue till the release of all 
shopkeepers and their leaders and added that the traders at a 
meeting on Thursday night had nominated Haji Afzal as acting 
chairman of the Tajir Ittehad.

Traders, said Mr Jan, were ready to cooperate with the government 
but the "corrupt" officials of the CBR and some black sheep in the 
civil bureaucracy were out to sabotage the government-trader talks.

He said they had held a fruitful meeting with chief executive on 
Oct 27 at which the CE had constituted a two-member committee 
comprising Tariq Pervez and Saleem Altaf to hold the next meeting 
with traders on Nov 7. But the CBR officials in connivance with the 
administration tried to sabotage the proposed meeting by arresting 
traders, he added.

He said the shopkeepers and their leaders had nothing to do with 
the Thursday's incident in which some miscreants had attacked an 
army jeep.

Banks to give Rs4bn to NADRA
Faraz Hashmi 

ISLAMABAD, Nov 1: National Database and Registration Authority on 
Wednesday signed an agreement with 11 banks and finance development 
institutions for provision of Rs4 billion to the authority.

Nadra chairman Zahid Ihsan and representatives of the respective 
banks and DFIs singed an agreement here at a ceremony held at Nadra 

The amount has been arranged by Askari Commercial Bank and Standard 
Chartered Bank, who are acting as financial advisers and arrangers 
for the funding of Rs4 billion in a period of five years on behalf 
of Nadra.

The banks and DFIs which signed the agreement include National 
Bank, Bank Alfalah, Faysal Bank, Pak Libya Holding Co, Union Bank, 
Soneri Bank, Employees Old Age Benefit Institution, Bank of Khyber, 
Askari Commercial Bank, Standard Chartered Bank and Islamic 
Investment Bank.

The funding will be extended by banks / financial institutions in 
two phases. Total funding is Rs4 billion and to be extended to the 
period of five years. 

National Bank will contribute Rs1,000 million, Bank Alfalah Rs300 
million, Faysal Bank Rs200 million, Pak Libya Holding Co Rs200 
million, Union Bank Rs200 million, Soneri Bank Rs200 million, 
Employees Old Age Benefit Institution Rs500 million, Bank of Khyber 
Rs100 million, Islamic Investment Bank Rs150 million, Standard 
Chartered Bank Rs200 million and Askari Commercial Bank will 
provide a sum of Rs950 million.

Speaking at the ceremony, Mr Ihsan thanked the financial 
institutions and added that this manifested their confidence in the 
ongoing projects of the authority.

Earlier the executives of banks and DFIs were received by chairman 
of Nadra. They were later conducted to different parts of the 
facility and taken to different departments of the Nadra, where 
they witnessed various activities. 

The chiefs of banks and DFIs lauded Nadra's effort to establish a 
complete database.

ECC to settle money row between two ministries

ISLAMABAD, Nov 1: The Economic Coordination Committee will decide 
at its next meeting whether the agriculture ministry should pay 
Rs9.65 million to the commerce ministry for using the Cotton Export 
Corporation's godowns.

The matter was referred to the ECC after the two ministries failed 
to reach a settlement.

The commerce ministry claims that the fertilizer import department 
in Karachi has been utilizing the cotton export corporation's 
storage facilities since January 1999 without paying the rent, 
which, till August 2000, accumulated to Rs9.65 million.

The commerce ministry said that the cotton export corporation, 
being a self-financed autonomous body, was facing financial crisis 
and needed the amount immediately.

The agriculture ministry says it is not in a position to pay such a 
huge amount to a government agency and is asking the Economic 
Coordination Committee to get the money waived off.

Pakistan, China agree to implement 40 projects

ISLAMABAD, Nov 1 : Under the 15th S&T Cooperation Protocol signed 
on Wednesday, Pakistan and China agreed to implement 40 projects in 
the field of biotechnology, agricultural sciences, standards and 
quality control, fisheries, water resources etc.

The protocol was signed in a meeting of Pakistan-China Joint 
Ministerial Committee on S&T Co-operation, a press release said.

The Pakistan delegation was led by Secretary Science and Technology 
Division, Javed Masud. 

 The Chinese side was led by Mr Yuan Shunguang, director general, 
international relations, ministry of science and technology. 
Chinese ambassador to Pakistan Lu Shulin was also present on the 

Talking to the delegation, Javed Masud informed the delegation that 
Minister for Science and Technology Prof Atta-ur-Rahman had 
suggested that Pakistan and China should establish a joint 
revolving fund on the pattern of Pak-Kazakhstan co-operation.

Javed requested China to help Pakistan in minimising post harvest 
problems, preparation of vaccines, production of low energy 
consuming bulks and renewable energy sector.

A number of big projects, built with the help of China, in Pakistan 
included Heavy Mechanical Complex, Heavy Electrical Complex, Heavy 
Rebuild Factory and Chashma Nuclear Power Plant. Javed said due to 
financial difficulties, some research projects included in the 14th 
Protocol could not be implemented. 

 Some 280 projects of economic importance are undergoing a process 
of peer review at the moment and the S&T Division intends to launch 
about 30-40 commercially viable projects in the near future.

Hubco welcomes Kapco settlement
Bureau Report

ISLAMABAD, Nov 1: The Hub Power Company (Hubco) and Kot Addu Power 
Company (Kapco) are fundamentally different Independent Power 
Producers (IPPs) and as such require different formulas for their 
settlement, a spokesman of Hubco claimed here on Wednesday.

He, however, said Hubco was hopeful that the Kapco settlement would 
provide momentum for a resolution to the Hubco dispute.

In a statement, he said now there appeared a political will at the 
highest level to resolve the outstanding IPP issues.

He explained that the Kapco agreement is essentially an acceptance 
by International Power (formally National Power) of the Wapda and 
Pakistan government position. In accepting the terms of the Wapda 
settlement, International Power has chosen to give up management 
control, the operations and management contract, the technical 
services agreement and the guaranteed future dividends revenue, in 
order to secure the original value of their investment in their 

"With the settlement, International Power has chosen to move from 
being a strategic investor to a passive investor, and Kapco 
essentially becomes an asset of the State".

The Hubco spokesman noted that issue of 'shareholder' is a key 
point of differentiation between the two IPPs. He noted that in the 
case of Kapco, there are only two shareholders. In the case of 
Hubco, no one shareholder has the authority to transact a deal with 
Wapda. Moreover, each shareholder represented on the Negotiating 
Committee has a fiduciary duty to safeguard the interests of all 
shareholders with respect to future rate of returns over the 27-
year life of the project.

The spokesman noted that Hubco's long-held position is that any 
deal must be sustainable over the 27-year life of the project. 
Sustainability for Hubco is defined by two elements (i) acceptance 
by the government and Wapda of certain fundamental principles of 
international commercial law to guide the future implementation of 
the contract; and (2) an acceptable rate of return to the company 
's 17,000 shareholders.

CE rejects private firm's royalty claim
Bureau Report

ISLAMABAD, Oct 31: The chief executive has rejected a request of 
the ministry of food and agriculture for refund of $136,543 
overpayment of royalty claimed by a private company.

After receiving the directive from the Chief Executive Secretariat, 
the food ministry informed M/s MEFT of the rejection of its eight-
year-old claim, terming it illegitimate.

M/s MEFT had claimed refund of what it called overpayment of 
royalty it said it had paid to the Marine Fisheries Department 
(MFD), Karachi, during 1992 at a rate of three per cent of free on 
board (FOB) value of fish catch. The prices of the fish were 
determined on six-month basis by the price fixation committee of 
the MFD.

The royalty for the fish transshipment during the period from March 
to August 1992 was charged according to new prices fixed by the 
committee instead of old prices fixed for Sept 1998- Feb 1992. The 
royalty was charged accordingly from all the firms including MEFT.

The MEFT, however, later claimed that it had overpaid the royalty 
amounting to $136,543. The claim was considered at least four times 
by the ministry and it was found to be "unfounded". However, after 
some months the same ministry, under strange circumstances, 
accepted the demand despite severe opposition from the Fisheries 
Department commissioner.

After months of deliberations, the CE Secretariat wrote a letter to 
the food ministry on Oct 7. The letter signed by Brigadier Tariq 
Hamid Khan, said that the law division had opined that the claim of 
MEFT being seven-year-old could not be entertained at this stage 
and that even on merit the company had no justification to claim 
the refund.

Explore new markets, CE asks exporters

GUJRANWALA, Oct 30: Chief Executive Gen Pervaiz Musharraf on Monday 
asked exporters to explore new markets, specially in Middle East 
and Africa, to strengthen the national economy.

The CE visited a local industrial unit making home appliances. He 
said the government was taking solid steps to promote exports and 
resolve problems being faced by the business community.

According to APP, Musharraf said markets of Central Asia and Africa 
were still untapped and the Pakistani exporters stood good chance 
of earning precious foreign exchange for the country by exploring 
these areas.

Unit owner Haji Muhammad Yousaf announced a donation of Rs 5 
million for the promotion of information technology in Gujranwala 
provided the administration earmarked a suitable piece of land for 
the project. Gen Musharraf advised the Punjab governor who was also 
present on the occasion to acquire land for the construction of an 
information technology institute.

Earlier, the chief executive inaugurated the Dogranwala- Papnakhah 
link road, some 20 kilometres north-west of Gujranwala.

The six-kilometres long road being constructed at a cost of Rs 5.5 
million would provide a link to the area with a population of 
20,000 to the districts of Hafizabad and Mandi Bahauddin.

About 200 persons have been employed for the project being carried 
out under Integrated Rural and Urban Development Programme for the 
alleviation of poverty. The chief executive was also briefed on the 
development projects in the Gujranwala district on this occasion.

ARMED FORCES: The chief executive addressed officers of Gujranwala 
Garrison and said the armed forces were a symbol of unity, harmony 
and cohesion in the country.

Tax notices being sent to Karachi residents

ISLAMABAD, Oct 29: The Income Tax authorities in Karachi have 
started distributing the tax registration notices to 10,700 
residents of the posh localities asking them to explain why they 
are still not registered as taxpayers.

They are also required to mention the income tax circle and zone of 
registration in case any of them is already on the tax books. The 
Central Board of Revenue (CBR) has discovered through the Tax 
Survey forms that these high-income people are not registered with 
the Income Tax department despite the fact that they enjoy taxable 

Recipients of these notices would have to return the duly-filled 
notice within 14 days of receipt. Karachi would be the first city 
where such notices are being distributed among the residents of 
posh localities.

The Income Tax Department intends to distribute such notices in 
Lahore in the first week of November. Another 15000 notices are 
also being distributed in Karachi among the high-income people who 
own expensive houses but have stated annual incomes below 

The income level declared through tax survey forms by people 
enjoying high financial status is unacceptable, say CBR officials. 
"We cannot expect people living in houses valuing Rs5-10 million 
and above to be enjoying incomes less than Rs300,000 a year," the 
officials added.

In all, the Income Tax Department plans to send 53,000 notices to 
residents of posh areas in 13 major cities who own large houses, 
more than two motor cars, and those who have been found concealing 
income through the tax survey forms.

Misuse of tax officials power to be checked
By Our Correspondent

RAWALPINDI, Oct 28: Chairman Central Board of Revenue (CBR) Riaz 
Hussain Naqvi has said that the government is all set to check 
misuse of discretionary powers against taxpayers by the tax 
collectors, as it has developed a new computerized monitoring 

He made this observation during his meeting with the President of 
the Rawalpindi Chamber of Commerce and Industry Raja Tariq Kiyani 
on Saturday. The RCCI's Senior Vice President Dr Muhammad Amjad, 
Mian Pervaiz Aslam, Najamulhaq Malik and Najam Rehan also 
participated in the meeting.

The CBR chairman said that in order to check the corruption of tax 
collectors, changes had been made in Self Assessment Scheme and the 
government had also devised a system in which the contact between 
taxpayers and tax collectors would be minimal.

He informed that the information submitted by the common man in tax 
survey form would be computerized along with the complete record of 
utility bills and the CBR would compare the expenses and the income 
of a person and tax would be collected from those, who had provided 
incorrect information.

The CBR chief said that still there were no such orders issued for 
the abolition of turnover tax. However, the government was 
considering to withdraw Turnover Tax on small traders. He said that 
although the government was keen to develop tax culture, the date 
for filing of tax returns would not be extended.

Earlier, speaking on the occasion, Kiyani said that the businessmen 
were willing to pay their due taxes but they were scared by the 
blackmailing of tax authorities.

Back to the top
Ardeshir Cowasjee

THERE may be hope. The quality and type of municipal administrators 
and mayors we have had of late in Pakistan, during the eleven years 
of democratic government, the freely and fairly elected lot, are 
somewhat comparable in their ignorance of history to the present 
Mayor of London, Ken Livingstone.

Livingstone was born in Lambeth in 1945, at the end of World War 
II, and was educated at Tulse Hill Comprehensive School, where he 
presumably was taught history in the same manner as the children of 
Pakistan are now forced to study a compulsory subject known as 
Pakistan Studies, guaranteed to keep them fully ignorant of any 
historical or current facts about their country.

After leaving school, Livingstone worked for eight years as a 
technician at the Chester Beatty Cancer Research Institute in 
London. He took to politics in 1971, became a member of the Lambeth 
Council and then of the Camden Council. In between he decided to 
take up teaching and entered Phillipa Fawcett Teacher Training 
College, qualifying in 1973, and that same year became a member of 
the Greater London Council, a body that was later abolished by 
Margaret Thatcher just to get rid of Livingstone who was then 
heading it.

In the 1987 general election he became Labour MP for Brent East and 
was re-elected in 1992. At the last general election in 1997, he 
increased his majority with a 14 per cent swing from the 
Conservatives. Following a high profile campaign, in September 1997 
he was re-elected to Labour's National Executive Committee (of 
which he had been member in the late 1980s). The rules governing 
the elections to the NEC were changed in 1997 to prevent Members of 
Parliament standing in the constituency section. Ken was chucked 
out of the Labour Party last year for standing against the official 
candidate for Mayor of London, Frank Dobson, whom he trounced in 
the election.

Affectionately known as Red Ken, Livingstone writes a weekly column 
every Wednesday for the Independent newspaper, a regular column for 
the left weekly Tribune, and a regular restaurant column for the 
London Evening Standard (free meals?).

He is a former vice-president of the London Zoological Society, so 
even if ignorant of history, apart from being a man of the people 
he is a lover of animals, and hopefully a kind and good human 
being. Earlier this month, Mayor Livingstone, during Mayor's 
question time at the London Assembly, remarked on two statues which 
have stood in Trafalgar Square for over a century, both of generals 
who served their country with distinction in India. "I think that 
the people on the plinths in Trafalgar Square in our capital city 
should be identifiable to the generality of the population. I have 
not a clue who two of the generals are or what they did."

When it was explained to him that One was very good in the Afghan 
War, Livingstone replied, "Precisely. I imagine that not one person 
in 10,000 going through Trafalgar Square knows any details about 
the lives of those two generals. 

It has been indicated to me that we could move the two generals 
that no one has ever heard of."

One general, Sir Henry Havelock, distinguished himself during the 
Indian Mutiny of 1857 relieving the British residency at Lucknow. 
He died soon after of dysentery. With the other general, we here in 
Sindh, are very familiar - General Sir Charles Napier.

Napier was a veteran of the Peninsular War (1808-1812), he fought 
in the United States in 1813 when it declared war upon England. In 
1839, back home, whilst commanding the northern district, he ably 
handled the dangerous dimensions of the Chartist movement averting 
a possible bloody revolution in Britain.

He was sixtyone-years-old when in 1843 he fought and won the great 
battles that made Sindh a part of the British Empire - Miani, 
Dabbo, and the storming of the impregnable fortress of Imambargah, 
the last according to the Duke of Wellington 'one of the most 
curious and extraordinary of all military feats.' He was appointed 
the first governor and commander of the forces in Sindh.

Karachi owes Napier much. He saw that a regular supply of water was 
conveyed to the city from the Malir River, he developed housing and 
roads, drainage and sanitation facilities, all of which served the 
city well until Pakistan came into being. He installed a powerful 
lighthouse at Manora Point, and planned to make Karachi a free port 
by widening the entrance to the harbour, constructing docks, and 
connecting the island of Keamari to Karachi.

He introduced into Sindh a police system far in advance of any 
other in India, which became the model for most of what was good in 
subsequent reforms of the Indian Police.

In 1847, his health failing, he tendered his resignation as 
Governor of Sindh and sailed away home to England where he died in 
1853. An obelisk of pink Aberdeen granite was raised in his 
commemoration that year on the Napier Mole by the people of 
Karachi. The inscription upon its plinth read : "From this spot on 
1st October 1847 was fired the farewell salute to His Excellency Lt 
General Sir Charles Napier GCB. On his retirement from the 
Governorship of Sind being the extreme point from which at that 
date wheel carriage had ever passed along this Bunder, a work 
planned and executed under the Government of His Excellency and 
thus far completed at the date of his departure from this 

Let us follow the fate of the obelisk. After partition, a callous 
chairman of the Karachi Port Trust had it removed and dumped in the 
municipal graveyard of monuments erected by the Raj.

In 1975, Hayat Sherpao, Bhutto's chief minister in the NWFP, was 
murdered. To commemorate his death, the old Karachi polo ground, 
then known as the Bagh-i-Jinnah, was renamed Sherpao Gardens and 
Bhutto ordered that a monument be instantly erected therein to 
commemorate his murdered minister. His flunkies scrounged around 
the municipal monument graveyard, found the old ruined and wrecked 
obelisk, resurrected it, and hastily stood it up in the Sherpao 
Gardens. The lead filling of the engraved portion was gouged out 
and an etched brass plaque commemorating Sherpao screwed upon the 
damaged portion. This plaque was removed in 1978 after Bhutto was 
deposed and the name Sherpao Gardens consigned to oblivion.

The damaged defaced obelisk still stands on the old polo ground, 
with no plaque, no inscription, only the remains of an 
undecipherable damaged indentations to mark it. Close to it, in the 
nameless garden, now stands Nawaz Sharif's monument to the testing 
of his nuclear bomb and his subsequent downfall - a botched replica 
made of unrecognizable material representing the radiation-stricken 
hill at Chaghi. We must hope that no future desecrator of Pakistan 
renames the garden (which has grown and flourished despite the park 
commissioners this city has had) after our atomic wizard and dubs 
it Bagh-i-Abdul Qadeer Khan.

Back to London. A descendant of Sir Charles Napier wrote the editor 
of The Times (London) responding to the news item on Livingstone 
expressed intentions on the future of the Trafalgar Square statue 
of his forebear. As to Mr Ken Livingstone's concern that he is not 
a well-known national character, anyone viewing his statue can at 
least learn something from the inscription on the plinth : "Erected 
by Public Subscription, the most numerous subscribers being Private 

And, as another correspondent put it, "The purpose of a statue is 
either to remind us, if we have forgotten, or prompt us to inquire, 
if we do not know, of the deeds considered at the time significant 
enough to commemorate."

As remarked the chairman of the Royal Fine Art Commission Trust, 
removing statues commemorating national heroes is a bizarre and 
foolish idea, for Trafalgar Square has to be judged in its 
historical context and the figures represented there are relevant 
to a particular era and also part of British history.

How many statues are on Red Ken's list? Will Nelson still stand 
safely on his column?

Surrealism across a bleak landscape
Ayaz Amir

THERE is a surreal quality to the economic advice - from the likes 
of such accredited experts as Mr Moeen Qureshi and Mr Shahid Javed 
Burki - with which Pakistan's military rulers are being bombarded. 
Not that the prescriptions being offered are wrong.

 But their brilliance notwithstanding, they are a bit like 
wrestling or body-building tips to a sick man on a hospital bed - 
someone who can't digest any food being told that if he would only 
jump out of bed at the crack of dawn, take six raw eggs on his 
empty stomach and go for a six-mile run he should soon be in the 
ring battling with the best.

This government is awash on a sea of simplicities. It lacks an 
agenda or even a sense of direction. What its competence has been 
over the last twelve months is now clear even to its most committed 
votaries. Worse than any economic recession is the mental 
depression in which the nation is trapped. Pakistan is not 
starving. It doesn't lack food or other necessities. Yet a pall of 
gloom hangs over it, attributable directly to the performance we 
are seeing: a great deal of coming and going related to no 
definable purpose.

As I write these lines, what are the newspaper headlines in front 
of me? "Cabinet decides to reduce fiscal deficit"... "Corruption in 
PIA, CAA to end soon"... "Musharraf orders speedy privatization". 
Bracing stuff. Surely in the spin factories of the government 
someone has a great sense of humour. What do the times require and 
what is the government delivering? "Cabinet decides to reduce 
fiscal deficit". The people of Pakistan should surely take heart 
from this rousing piece of news.

Buffeted by bad leadership, the people of Pakistan held fast to one 
last illusion: that the military was the last line of national 
defence. As the mess of government worsens only the battered wreck 
of this illusion remains. This may be the most vivid symbol of the 
failure of leadership we are seeing: the last holy cow laid to 
rest. "Cabinet decides to reduce fiscal deficit": this is the 
Pakistani version of evoking the spirit of Dunkirk.

There was a time when the initials ISI inspired a sense of awe and 
dread. A corps commanders' conference was akin to an assembly of 
the minor gods. Alas, no more. The mystique that not long ago had 
the nation in its thrall is lost, perhaps irrevocably. Familiarity 
plus muddled performance have bred indifference. (The word contempt 
I dare not use.) More than the necessity of reviving the economy, 
or reducing the fiscal deficit, Pakistan needs to manufacture a 
fresh set of illusions. For stripped of illusions, as Pakistan 
presently is, a country is naked.  

Anyhow, this latest devaluation is true to type. We seem to have 
perfected the ability of devaluing the things we touch. Take our 
nuclear capacity. Between Dr A. Q. Khan's relentless public 
posturing and the monuments raised to Chaghi all over the country 
it has been turned into an object of fun. Except in a negative 
sense, who is impressed by it? We ourselves of course, but who 
else? Accountability, democracy, even Islamization: all concepts 
devalued at our hands. As if all this was not enough, we have now 
succeeded in nailing the last illusion to the mast.

Pakistan's problem is not 'what is to be done'? By and large we 
know the answer to this: wise government, the rule of law, 
administrative reform, institution-building, political stability 
and then, in the climate so engendered, long-term steps for debt 
retirement and economic growth. I have rattled off these cliches 
without consulting Adam Smith or Alan Greenspan. The litany of 
these great ideas is familiar and on the lips of every half-baked 
prophet of national reform and revival. The problem is 'who is to 
do the doing'? Who is to eat the raw eggs and run the six-mile run 
in order to be fit for the ring?

But first let us at least straighten out the tangled strings of 
national logic. A mule cannot produce offspring, not in a thousand 
years. A cockerel cannot lay eggs, not even with genetic 
engineering. The military is no solution to Pakistan's disease of 
the spirit (for it is a disease of the spirit before anything 
else), never was, never will be. The Pakistan army will readily 
hurl itself into battle should the necessity so arise. It can stop 
the enemy at the gates. Its young officers and men can compare with 
the best anywhere else. All this it can do ably and more. But 
exercising national leadership is a different thing. The army could 
not do this in better times. How can it perform this task in a 
rougher climate with the country's problems infinitely more 
intractable and complicated?

Another thing to get straight. A country has to put its political 
house in order before it can arrive at the frontiers of economic 
success. The cart cannot be put before the horse. If we fail to 
solve our political muddle, if we fail to discover the holy grail 
of political stability, we are doomed to go around in circles, 
forever ambitious, forever thwarted in our endeavours.

It is a strange national psyche which thinks that the problems 
facing Pakistan can be tackled in isolation from each other. 
Afghanistan, the presence of Afghan refugees on Pakistani soil, the 
fighting in Kashmir, the strident calls for jihad, the plastic 
shoppers clogging our drains and water channels, the huge open-air 
garbage dump outside Islamabad on the Kashmir Highway, the endemic 
corruption of everyday life in Pakistan, the traffic muddle on our 
roads, the untidiness of our airports, the unruliness to be 
witnessed whenever a major sporting event takes place: all these 
are inter-connected issues in that they portray a society at war 
with itself, a society unable to come to grips with either simple 
problems or complicated ones.

If the genius of Pakistan cannot overcome the challenge of the 
plastic shopper, if the capital of Pakistan (the reputed Beautiful 
City) does not know how to dispose of its garbage, how on earth do 
we expect our country to reach for the stars? In wars big or small, 
the principles of war remain the same. In managing large or small 
organizations, the principles of management remain the same. A 
leadership or a governing class which cannot master small problems, 
is unlikely to get the better of bigger ones. A national aesthetic 
helpless before the onslaught of the plastic shopper is unlikely to 
be hit by the absurdity of bankrupt means being put to the service 
of grandiose ends.

But all this is to state the obvious. If military rule is no answer 
to anything, where do we go from here? Lectures alone will not 
loosen the grip of military rule and the military on its own is 
unlikely to see the light and relinquish political power. What are 
we then in for? The signs are not propitious: an extended 
stalemate, the reinforcing of failure, doggedness turning to 
obstinacy, the nation's spirit exposed to the wind and the 
elements. Bleak winters, more lost years: in all, a depressing 

Yet in this country fools abound who say we should sing of positive 
things. As if the mere singing, the mere rearranging of dismal 
news, will alter the balance of reality.

Of course we are not a meltdown state. Of course we are not headed 
the way of Gorbachev's Russia. Or, worse, the death and destruction 
of Afghanistan. We have resilience and talent. We grow our own food 
(or at least have begun to). If for fifty years we have survived 
incompetent and corrupt government, there is something to be said 
for our powers of endurance.

But the question remains. Why cannot we put our affairs in order? 
For this, no miracles are required, only a measure of sound and 
honest government. Once we have this the economic pundits can take 
over. But if even this bare minimum eludes us then it is time to 
call in the astrologers and soothsayers. What have we done, what 
sins committed, to so earn the implacable wrath of the heavens?

A discourse of the deaf 
Irfan Husain

OF late, there has been much discussion of the Two-Nation Theory in 
the national press. Politicians, especially those from the three 
smaller provinces, have made critical noises about this principle 
that was the basis for the partition of India.

Basically, the theory postulated that the Hindus and Muslims of the 
subcontinent constituted two distinct nations and therefore needed 
separate states to pursue their respective destinies. The problem 
with this vision was that it treated the people of South Asia as 
two homogeneous groups of Hindus and Muslims, making no allowances 
for the vast cultural, ethnic and linguistic differences that 
contribute to the colourful and vibrant mosaic that is the 

This theory sought to bind a Muslim in Dhaka with one in 
Dharampura, and a Hindu in Sukkur with one in Simla. The reality 
was very different. A Muslim Bengali had far more in common with a 
Hindu from Calcutta than a Punjabi Muslim, while a Pushtun from 
Durra is much closer culturally and ethnically to his cousin in 
Jalalabad in Afghanistan than he is to a Muslim in Chittagong. 
These very real differences were glossed over by the over-
simplifications on which the Two-National Theory is based.

And although millions of Muslims and Hindus migrated in both 
directions in 1947, millions of others chose to stay where they 
were. The fact that even after partition, India continued to have a 
significant Muslim population weakened the principle on which 
Pakistan had been created. This questionable premise was further 
eroded by the separation of East Pakistan in 1971. We now have 
three states in the subcontinent, each with roughly 150 million 
Muslims. Detractors of the Two-Nation Theory point out that had 
India not been partitioned, there would have been around 450 
million Muslims living there. Such a large population can hardly be 
termed a persecuted minority.

However, these are the ifs and buts of history. The bottom line is 
that for good or bad, right or wrong, Pakistan came into being over 
half a century ago, and need no longer justify its existence to 
India, the rest of the world or to its own citizens. Over a period 
of time, a state acquires legitimacy and a certain momentum just by 
virtue of its existence. It does not have to explain time and again 
why it was created.

Unfortunately, our leaders and self-appointed ideologues have 
consistently taken upon themselves the impossible and exceedingly 
boring task of defending a defunct theory. To do so, they have gone 
through bizarre and tortuous intellectual contortions that might 
have been amusing were it not for the strains they have placed on 
the fabric of the Pakistani state. First and foremost, the 
defenders of the so-called ideology of Pakistan have tried to 
establish the geographically untenable position that we are part of 
the Mid-East and not South Asia. To sustain this fiction, they have 
done their wicked worst to purge our culture of subcontinental 
influences. Thus, classical dancing is under a virtual official ban 
while theatre and music exist on sufferance. Students are taught 
Arabic (badly) at an early age and indoctrinated to despise 
everything India.

The other fiction that underpins this official doctrine is that 
history began for Pakistan when Mohammad Bin Qasim landed on our 
shores and conquered and converted much of Sindh. The flowering of 
the Gandhara civilization and the magnificent earlier achievements 
of the Indus Valley civilization are largely glossed over except in 
the tawdry publications we produce for the benefit of the few 
foreign tourists who venture here. Unfortunately, many of these 
attitudes are mirrored across the border in India.

These contortions have resulted in a major identity crisis that has 
robbed at least two generations of their creativity: by cutting 
them off from their real roots, our ideologues have produced a 
nation that is unsure of its position in the region and the world. 
One reason why we are so full of doom and gloom is that we are 
constantly subjected to long-winded and fatuous explanations about 
why Pakistan came into being. It is almost as if we were being 
constantly asked to prove our legitimacy at every step.

Instead of getting on with life, much of our energy and vitality 
have been dissipated in this sterile and pointless debate: after 
all these years, what does it matter why Pakistan was created? What 
matters is that it was created, and we need to stop justifying its 
creation. Scores of nation-states have come into being after 1947, 
and most of them do not feel the compulsion to defend their 
existence. The world is not asking us to produce a certificate of 
legitimacy; it only wants us to join the rest of the human race and 
accept reality as it is.

Another distortion the Two-Nation Theory has produced is the 
compulsion to define ourselves in terms of India: we have tried to 
show how different we are from our neighbour at every turn. 
Inevitably, an Indian misfortune is seen as our good fortune, and 
every Indian gain as our loss. This zero-sum game is a debilitating 
exercise and has resulted in tunnel vision in which our large 
neighbour has become our only horizon. Our internal and external 
policies are largely aimed at somehow countering real and perceived 
Indian threats and hegemonic designs.Any theory that seeks to 
promote separateness denies our humanity and the ability of 
civilized people to live together despite differences in colour, 
caste or creed. As somebody said recently, "First we Muslims said 
we could not live with Hindus and created Pakistan; then we said we 
could no longer live with Bengalis, and Bangladesh was the result. 
Now Sunnis are saying they cannot live with Shias. Where will it 
all stop?" Where indeed?

There is considerable evidence to suggest that the demand for 
Pakistan was a bargaining position initially adopted by the Muslim 
League. Ultimately, it was Congress obduracy more than Muslim 
League insistence that resulted in the creation of Pakistan. 
Whatever the reality, it is certain that the bloodletting that 
accompanied partition shook the founder of the new state and 
probably caused the decades of suspicion and rancour that have 
marked Indo-Pakistani relations ever since.

There has been a demand to try Altaf Hussain of the MQM for 
criticizing the creation of Pakistan. This is the knee-jerk 
reaction of our ideologues who have already inflicted so much 
damage in the past. It would be far better to debate these issues 
openly, and if that is the consensus, lay to rest the Two-Nation 
Theory. We no longer need defunct theories to justify the creation 
and existence of Pakistan.

Match-fixing: CE to handle the matter, says Tarar

ISLAMABAD, Oct 31: President Rafiq Tarar has said that the 
appointment of judge for the inquiry into match-fixing of 1999 
World Cup matches and umpire Javed Akhtar, as requested by the 
chairman Pakistan Cricket Board, falls within the purview of the 

Talking to Dawn at the closing ceremony of the President of 
Pakistan Cup Golf Tournament at Rawalpindi Golf Club, the President 
who is also the patron-in-chief of PCB, further said that he has 
already written to the Chief Executive to handle the matter as he 

President's press secretary intervened when it was being asked to 
comment on the policy of the cricket board which on one hand is 
holding inquiries against the cricketers allegedly involved in 
wrong-doing but on the other is awarding them medals.

Sports best means to promote peace: President Rafiq Tarar has said 
that in the present times sports are the best means to promote 
peace and understanding among countries.

The president was speaking at a reception hosted in the honour of 
cricket teams of visiting England and Pakistan at the presidency on 
Tuesday. The president met all members of the two teams 

President Tarar said that cricket was a popular sport and a vast 
majority of people of both England and Pakistan take great interest 
in it.

He appreciated both teams over the standard of game displayed 
during the one-day series and congratulated Pakistan team on 
winning it.

The president also hoped that the forthcoming three-match Test 
series will be played in a healthy atmosphere, bringing forth the 
best from both teams.

Pakistan defeat England by 6 wkts; Win one-day series
Samiul Hasan

RAWALPINDI, Oct 30: Spin wizard Saqlain Mushtaq bowled Pakistan to 
their first one-day series victory over England in 26 years when 
they won the third and final one-dayer six wickets at the Pindi 
Cricket Stadium here on Monday.

Saqlain captured five for 20. This was the sixth time that he 
achieved the feat, as England were spun out for a paltry 158 in 
42.5 overs.

In their target chase, Pakistan top order almost made a mess of 
things when the three top order batsmen returned at the score of 
51. But Inzamam-ul-Haq and Yousuf Youhana held the innings together 
before Abdur Razzaq finished the match in 43.3 overs with a little 
cavalier nine-ball 17 with four boundaries.

Inzamam hit an elegant but punishing 60 while Youhana nudged and 
pushed the ball before losing his off stump to Craig White with 31 
still needed. The two featured in a 77-run third wicket 

England paceman Andrew Caddick picked up Imran Nazir and Shahid 
Afridi on the last ball of his first over and first ball of the 
second over respectively to be on a split hat trick which was 
thwarted by Inzamam. Later Ashley Giles accounted for Salim Elahi 
to give an intriguing turn to what looked like a calkwalk victory 
for Pakistan. But the two most experienced Pakistan batsmen batted 
professionally, responsibly and defiantly to shatter the 
Englishmen's dreams.

While Pakistan, for the second successive match, exposed England's 
vulnerability against quality spin bowling, the tourists also had 
something to gain from the third match. The three inexperienced but 
promising Pakistan stroke-makers struggled against a fired-up 
England bowling led by Caddick on a placid track. Imran, playing 
for a sick Saeed Anwar, was caught in the second slip and Shahid 
Afridi was beaten by the swing to be caught by Nasser Hussain at 
point. Both failed to show any resilience against controlled swing 
bowling from the visitors.

Salim, an in-form batsmen, could have easily been third victim to 
England pacers had Graeme Hick held on to a regulation catch off 
Darren Gough with Pakistan reeling at 20 for two.

>From then on, Inzamam and Youhana took control of the proceedings 
with some excellent but at times risky strokes. Youhana was cool 
and calculated by rotating the strike, Inzamam batted by mixing 
caution with aggression with some fluent carpet drives that yielded 
seven boundaries.

England fielding also let them down when they failed to convert 
three half chances and also missed the sticks thrice to run out the 
batsmen. Inzamam was dropped by Ashley Giles off White when 50.

Abdur Razzaq also had a memorable day when he became the 12th 
Pakistani to capture 100 wickets while pushing back the off stump 
of Mark Ealham. Razzaq's 99th victim was Alec Stewart who was 
caught behind the wickets.

England were in dire straits when they slumped to 86 for six after 
Moin Khan won the third successive toss and put England into bat. 
But Graham Thorpe and Ealham (23) saved England from complete 
embarrassment by adding 47 for the seventh wicket.

Thorpe was the last man out after scoring 39 while Trecothick 
scored 36.

However, the poor leg before decision by Mian Aslam against England 
captain Nasser Hussain took the gloss off a comprehensive Pakistan 
victory. Wasim Akram's delivery had pitched nearly six inches 
outside the leg stump but Aslam, who is in the ICC panel, raised 
his fingers towards heaven to stun the England captain as well as 
experts of the game. In Karachi, Riazuddin had given a shocking 
decision against Alec Stewart off Akram. Both are in the ICC panel.

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