------------------------------------------------------------------- DAWN WIRE SERVICE ------------------------------------------------------------------- Week Ending : 13 November 1999 Issue : 05/46 -------------------------------------------------------------------
Contents | National News | Business & Economy | Editorials & Features | Sports
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CONTENTS ===================================================================
NATIONAL NEWS + National Security Council, cabinet sworn in + Formal announcement by Monday: C'wealth expels Pakistan + FIR against Nawaz, others registered + Musharraf holds talks with Kuwait leaders + Musharraf discusses relations with Amir of Qatar + Delhi rules out early talks with Islamabad + Islamabad ready for talks with New Delhi + Ties with Pakistan to grow: Khatami + Clinton's visit to Pakistan: Yaqub unable to convince US leaders + Submarine, planes leave for Pakistan + PML to challenge Army takeover + Ghous, three others formally arrested + Islamabad rocked by series of explosions --------------------------------- BUSINESS & ECONOMY + Pakistani textiles held up at US ports + No question to be asked on source of wealth + Top bankers to be removed + 3,000 bank defaulters put on Exit Control List + Shaukat cautions CBR against taking tough measures + Assembly of computer monitors + Govt urged to consult traders before tax levy + Tribunal for first settling terms of reference + 2m tons of wheat to be imported + Shaukat presides meeting: Only willful defaulters to be punished + Bomb blasts intercept market's run-up --------------------------------------- EDITORIALS & FEATURES + Jinnah's Pakistan Ardeshir Cowasjee + How many plots does a man require? Ayaz Amir + The liberal's dilemma Irfan Husain ----------- SPORTS + Australia canter to 10-wicket victory in first Test + Pakistan not done with yet, says Akram

National Security Council, cabinet sworn in

ISLAMABAD, Nov 6: Ten federal ministers and four members of the 
National Security Council took oath of their offices at a ceremony 
held at the Aiwan-i-Sadr on Saturday.

President Rafiq Tarar administered the oath. The chief executive, 
Gen Pervez Musharraf, was present.

Chief of Air Staff Air Marshal Pervez Mehdi Qureshi and Naval Chief 
Abdul Aziz Mirza, who are members of the NSC, did not take oath, 
under an order issued by the chief executive.

Only hours before the ceremony, the military authorities inducted 
Usman Aminuddin and Abbas Sarfraz Khan, a member of the suspended 
Senate, into the cabinet, raising its total strength to 10.

The ministers and their respective portfolios are: Shaukat Aziz, 
Finance; Abdul Sattar, Foreign Affairs; Zubeda Jalal, Education, 
Science and Technology; Moinuddin Haider, Interior and Narcotics; 
Omar Asghar Khan, Local Government and Rural Development; Abdul 
Razzaq Daud, Commerce, Industry and Production; Abdul Malik Kansi, 
Labour, Manpower and Health; Dr Shafqat Jamote, Food and 
Agriculture; Usman Aminuddin, Petroleum and Natural Resources; and 
Abbas Sarfraz Khan, Kashmir Affairs, Northern Areas, States and 
Frontiers Regions.

Apart from the naval and air chiefs, other members of the NSC 
headed by the chief executive are: Dr Mohammad Yaqub, Dr Attiya 
Inayatullah, Imtiaz Sahibzada, Sharifuddin Pirzada, senior adviser 
to the chief executive and ex-officio member of the NSC; and Aziz 
A. Munshi, the attorney-general.-Agencies

Formal announcement by Monday: C'wealth expels Pakistan

DURBAN (South Africa), Nov 12: Commonwealth leaders at their Durban 
summit agreed on Friday to suspend Pakistan from the group, but a 
formal announcement would not be made until Monday, said new 
Secretary General Don McKinnon.

"There is no question about their suspension from the councils of 
the Commonwealth. The issue now is how the Commonwealth best act to 
bring Pakistan back," McKinnon, New Zealand's Foreign Minister, 
told reporters after he was named to succeed Commonwealth Secretary 
General Emeka Anyaoku. Gen McKinnon added that it would maintain 
the "technical cooperation" necessary to bring the country back to 

"There is no question about the suspension from the councils of the 
Commonwealth. That was certainly redetermined today," Mr McKinnon 
told a press conference after being elected by a Heads of 
Government Meeting here.

"The issue is now, how can the Commonwealth best act through the 
ministerial action group to bring Pakistan back," he said, 
referring to the organization's democratic watchdog, the 
Commonwealth Ministerial Action Group (CMAG).

"Clearly we are not taking away the kind of technical cooperation 
that may be necessary to help that democratic process be returned," 
said McKinnon, who has been New Zealand's foreign and trade 
minister since 1990.

"If Pakistan clearly shows an unwillingness to move in that 
direction, to move even further away from that direction, the issue 
would have to be taken up again by CMAG and a maybe even stronger 
recommendation would go to the heads of government," he warned.

McKinnon, 60, takes over from Nigeria's Emeka Anyaoku, who has been 
secretary general of the 54-member organization for the past 
decade. Anyaoku is due to step down at the end of March 2000.

A man of vast experience in Commonwealth politics, McKinnon has 
served since its inception in 1995 as deputy chairman of CMAG, 
which is increasingly seen as the organization's cutting edge.

He was appointed to the body's five-member ministerial mission on 
small states in 1998.

A former minister for Pacific island affairs, McKinnon was widely 
credited with successfully brokering a ceasefire and renewed 
political dialogue in a bloody Pacific island dispute between 
Bougainvilleans and the Papua New Guinea government.

He was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize in 1998 for his part in 
resolving that conflict.

The CMAG have confirmed the suspension of Pakistan following the 
ouster of prime minister Nawaz Sharif, British Foreign Minister 
Robin Cook said on Friday.

"We have made it clear we will expect the ex-prime minister to have 
proper access to legal counsel, a fair and open trial, one that we 
can observe," he said. The Commonwealth groups mainly former 
British colonies.-Reuters/ AFP

FIR against Nawaz, others registered
Arman Sabir

KARACHI, Nov 10: Former Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, along with 
several others, was formally booked in a criminal case on Wednesday 
night. According to an FIR registered at the Karachi Airport police 
Nawaz Sharif and others have been accused of a criminal conspiracy 
to hijack the PIA aircraft on Oct 12.

Other accused named in the FIR are: ex-chairman, PIA, Shahid Khaqan 
Abbasi; director general, Civil Aviation Authority, Ameenullah 
Chaudhry; former advisor to ex-prime minister on Sindh Affairs, 
Syed Ghous Ali Shah; former Inspector General of Sindh Police, Rana 
Maqbool Ahmed, and others.

Official sources said that a written complaint sent by Lt-Col 
Atiquz Zaman Kiyani, Headquarters Five Corps, Karachi, through mail 
to the police had been turned into an FIR No.201/99 against Nawaz 
Sharif and others.

All the accused have been booked under Sections 402-B, 365, 120-B 
and 34 of the Pakistan Penal Code and Section 324 Qisas and Diyat 
law besides Section 7 of the Anti-Terrorism Act. According to 
sources, the complainant said that the flight PK-805, which was 
coming from Colombo to Quaid-i-Azam International Airport, Karachi 
carrying over 200 passengers, including the Chief of the Army 
Staff, General Pervez Musharraf, had been disallowed to land at 
Karachi. All lights and signals to escort the aircraft had been 
turned off and barricades were erected to stop it from landing. The 
authorities at the Karachi Airport ordered the aircraft to land at 
the Nawabshah Airport. The complainant said that the aircraft was 
about to run short of fuel and would have crashed after seven 
minutes of flying if it would not have landed at the Karachi 

The sections of the Pakistan Penal Code under which Nawaz Sharif 
and others have been booked read as under:

402-B: Whoever commits, or conspires or attempts to commit, or 
abets the commission of, hijacking shall be punished with death or 
imprisonment for life, and shall also be liable to forfeiture of 
property and fine.

120-B: (1) Whoever is a party to a criminal conspiracy to commit an 
offence punishable with death, [imprisonment for life] or rigorous 
imprisonment for a term of two years, or upwards, shall, whether no 
express provision is made in this Code for the punishment of such a 
conspiracy, be punished in the same manner as if he had abetted 
such offence. (2) Whoever is a party to a criminal conspiracy other 
than a criminal conspiracy to commit an offence punishable as 
aforesaid shall be punished with imprisonment of either description 
for a term not exceeding six months, or with fine or with both.

34: When a criminal act is done by several persons, in furtherance 
of the common intention of all, each of such persons is liable for 
that act in the same manner as if it were done by him alone.

Section 365 of the PPC deals with 'kidnapping or abduction with 
intent secretly and wrongfully to confine person.'

Musharraf holds talks with Kuwait leaders

KUWAIT, Nov 9: The chief executive, Gen Pervez Musharraf, on 
Tuesday held talks with Amir of Kuwait Sheikh Jaber al-Ahmad al- 
Sabah and discussed with him bilateral, regional and global issues.

Pakistan and Kuwait enjoy close and cordial relations that have 
expanded steadily over the years in the fields of economy, trade 
and manpower.

The friendly relations between the two countries are based on an 
objective understanding of each other's national interest and 

Pakistan's positive role and participation of its troops in the 
multinational force during the Iraqi occupation of Kuwait is deeply 
appreciated in Kuwait.

Gen Musharraf also held talks with Kuwaiti Crown Prince Sheikh Saad 
al-Abdullah al-Sabah and Defence Minister Sheikh Salem Sabah al-
Salem al-Sabah.-APP

Musharraf discusses relations with Amir of Qatar

DOHA, Nov 7: The chief executive, Gen Pervez Musharraf, held 
extensive talks here on Sunday with the Amir of Qatar, Sheikh Hamad 
bin Khalifa al-Thani, on bilateral and regional matters, and 
international situation.

The talks were held in a warm and cordial atmosphere characterized 
by mutual understanding.

Foreign Secretary Shamshad Ahmad and Pakistan's ambassador to Qatar 
Kamal Arif were present. Later, the two leaders held a one-to-one 

Pakistan and Qatar enjoy close and fraternal relations based on 
shared religious, cultural and historical ties.

According to Inayat Ullah Kakar, a spokesman for the Pakistan 
embassy, the CE was received at the airport by Qatar's Deputy Prime 
Minister Sheikh Mohammad bin Khalifa al-Thani, Qatari Minister for 
Justice, Pakistan ambassador and others.

The CE will return to Kuwait for a day-long visit on Tuesday, where 
he will hold talks with Amir Sheikh Jaber al- Ahmad al-Sabah before 
going back to Islamabad, Pakistan's foreign ministry said.

Pakistan has long relied on the Gulf Arab states for financial 
More than a million Pakistanis work in the region and their 
remittances home have been a valuable source of foreign exchange.

Delhi rules out early talks with Islamabad

NEW DELHI, Nov 11: Indian President K.R. Narayan on Thursday ruled 
out any immediate resumption of the stalled bilateral talks with 
Pakistan until the policies of the military regime in Islamabad 
became clear.

"So far it is not clear what would be Pakistan's policies and that 
is why we are a little cautious in opening a dialogue," he told 
newsmen on board the special Air India aircraft on his return from 
his four-day tour of Austria.

"There is a new military regime in Pakistan. We have to see what 
would be its policies before we can think of starting a new 
constructive dialogue with them," Narayan was quoted as saying.

Narayan charged Pakistan of encouraging terrorism in the northern 
state of Kashmir and said it had to stop its actions, "before we 
trust in resuming the (dialogue) process". Gen Pervez Musharraf 
became Pakistan's military ruler last month when he seized power in 
a bloodless coup-ousting civilian Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif.

The Indian president, a former career diplomat, also called upon 
the industrialised nations to lift the economic sanctions imposed 
last year to build a national consensus on signing the nuclear test 
ban treaty.

Narayan said India's nuclear policy was clearly aimed at de-
nuclearization of the world.

Narayan, the first Indian head of state to visit Austria, held 
wide-ranging discussions with his Austrian counterpart, Thomas 
Klestil, and the Chancellor, Viktor Kalima, and other high-ranking 
officials on various bilateral and international issues of mutual 

"Our stand is we have to first establish consensus in our country 
before we can sign the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). For 
the establishment of that consensus, the world powers have to 
cooperate in order to assure that their policies are towards de-
nuclearisation," said Narayan.

He also said the punitive measures "imposed on us have to be 
removed before the Indian public can develop a consensus," the 
Indian leader said.

On Austria's strong reaction to the Pokhran tests, Narayan said, "I 
was refreshingly surprised that they understood our security 
concerns, but (were) still obsessed that we should sign the CTBT".-

Islamabad ready for talks with New Delhi
Hasan Akhtar 

ISLAMABAD, Nov 8: Foreign Minister Abdus Sattar on Monday 
reiterated Islamabad's desire to improve relations with New Delhi, 
but observed that India "does not give that prospect a chance".

Mr Sattar, who formally took charge of his ministry on Saturday, 
was meeting national and foreign journalists here at tea the 
ministry had hosted.

A longtime career diplomat until his retirement a few years ago, Mr 
Sattar outlined some aspects of the current foreign policy issues 
confronting the military government. He said Pakistan was willing 
to respond to the international community's call for a dialogue to 
address the root causes of tension between Pakistan and 
India,including specifically the Kashmir dispute, to underscore 
Islamabad's keenness to reduce tension between the South Asian 

Mr Sattar said containing nuclear dangers in South Asia "will 
command our top priority." He recalled that although Pakistan voted 
in favour of the CTBT in 1996, it did not sign the treaty only 
because India's intentions were suspect, which were confirmed in 
May 1998 by Delhi's multiple nuclear explosions. The Indian 
ministers' threats which followed the tests, left Pakistan with no 
choice but to demonstrate its deterrent capability to safeguard its 
peace and security.

However, Pakistan after its own tit-for-tat response declared a 
moratorium on further tests and, the foreign minister declared, 
Pakistan would not take a provocative initiative and that it 
continued to be sensitive to the world community concern for non-
proliferation. "We will not participate in a build-up of strategic 
arsenals," he affirmed, saying: "A nuclear arms race by Pakistan is 
a figment (of imagination). We cannot afford it nor is it 

Mr Sattar, who faced a barrage of questions on almost all 
contemporary issues concerning the nation's foreign policy, said 
Pakistan firmly adhered to the historic stand on Kashmir, upholding 
the Kashmiri people's right to self-determination and it would try 
to seek a settlement which met the aspirations of people of 
Kashmir. He said Pakistan would stand by all international 
agreements, including those with India. About the Lahore 
declaration of February, he said it was one of the many agreements 
that had been concluded."We will scour it for its positive elements 
to implement it."

Ties with Pakistan to grow: Khatami 

TEHRAN, Nov 7: Iranian President Mohammad Khatami expressed hope on 
Sunday that bilateral relations with Pakistan would continue to 
develop. He said Tehran-Islamabad ties had not been affected by the 
change of government in Pakistan.

"The internal incidents in Pakistan do not affect the relations 
between the two countries," President Khatami said during talks 
with Pakistan's ambassador to Tehran, Javed Hussain, according to 
official IRNA news agency.

The Iranian head of state wished the Pakistan government success in 
"observing the rights and securing the needs" of the Pakistani 

During the meeting, Mr Hussain delivered a message from the chief 
executive, Gen Pervez Musharraf, to Mr Khatami, in which the leader 
underlined the importance of "bilateral cooperation for regional 

Gen Musharraf voiced Pakistan's determination in its fight against 
"domestic terrorism and violence."

Tehran "hopes that security and stability will be re-established as 
soon as possible," in Pakistan, foreign ministry spokesman Hamid-
Reza Asefi said after the coup.-AFP

Clinton's visit to Pakistan: Yaqub unable to convince US leaders

WASHINGTON, Nov 11: Pakistan's special envoy Sahibzada Yaqub Khan 
has apparently been unable to convince the US leadership not to 
drop Pakistan from President Clinton's South Asia visit early next 
diplomatic and official sources said on Thursday.

Although the envoy was able to meet officials at the highest level 
possible, including Secretary of State Madeleine Albright and 
National Security Adviser Sandy Berger, the clear message he was 
given was that the presidential visit was conditional on a 
timetable to restore democracy.

After Mr Yaqub Khan's visit a change in official statements of the 
state department and the White House is clearly visible. They are 
now saying that unless some movement on the timetable for democracy 
was seen by early next year, the visit to Pakistan was off.

But spokesman Jamie Rubin said on Thursday this was not an issue 
the US would take up in public. "We will take it up with Pakistan 
in private," he added.

Mr Yaqub Khan had warned the US leaders of anti-American and anti-
Indian reactions in Pakistan if Mr Clinton visited India only.

Mr Rubin said a visit by Mr Clinton to Pakistan was still possible 
if progress towards democracy took place by early next year. "We 
believe that it is important for the authorities in Pakistan to 
establish and meet milestones for a process of political reform 
leading to re-establishment of democracy," he said.

But Mr Rubin qualified his statement by adding: "It is also 
critically important for Pakistan to undertake a programme of 
reforms to restore health to the country's economy."

A White House official said: "We have not made any travel plans or 
schedule. The president plans to travel to South Asia, but we have 
not made a final decision. We have great respect for the people of 
Pakistan and have important strategic interests with Pakistan. 
Having said that, there is not going to be business as usual until 
a process that returns civilian government to Pakistan is in 

Submarine, planes leave for Pakistan

PARIS, Nov 9: A submarine and eight Mirage fighter planes built in 
France for Islamabad and held up since last month's military 
takeover left for Pakistan on Tuesday, diplomatic sources said.

The Agosta 90-B submarine sailed from the Mediterranean navy base 
of Toulon at 9:00 a.m. (0800 GMT). The Mirages later flew off in 
two groups of four. France announced "precautionary measures" after 
Pakistan's October 12 military takeover and stopped the submarine 
from leaving Toulon where it was undergoing final tests.

The foreign ministry later said it had no legal means to stop the 
submarine and several Mirage 3 and Mirage 5 aircraft scheduled for 
delivery, since they were already the property of Pakistan.

France has, however, said it would continue to keep a close eye on 
all exports of military equipment to Pakistan.-Reuters

PML to challenge Army takeover
Ashraf Mumtaz

LAHORE, Nov 10: Rejecting the proposal for launching a movement 
against the military government, the PML coordination committee 
decided here on Wednesday to challenge the October 12 takeover by 
the army before the Supreme Court
 and seek the restoration of the Constitution, the Senate and the 
assemblies and the Nawaz Sharif government.

The party's legal committee has been directed to prepare the 
petition and file it before the apex court in the next few days.

Separate petitions will be filed with the superior courts to secure 
the release of former Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif and other 

The coordination committee met under the chairmanship of Raja 
Zafarul Haq at the Gulberg residence of Mian Khurshid Mahmood 

A total of 56 members attended the meeting, which lasted about five 
hours. Dissident PML leader Mian Muhammad Azhar was also among the 
participants but he kept silent and did not even respond to the 
oblique criticism of his actions.

However, he told reporters that his presence should not be taken to 
mean that he had accepted the leadership of Mr Sharif or that he 
had changed his views about the coordination committee.

Raja Zafarul Haq told a news conference that the PML parliamentary 
party in the suspended Senate and the National Assembly would meet 
in Islamabad on Nov 16 to discuss the situation and decide future 
course of action.

The meeting praised the Commonwealth, the European Union and the 
world Press for their respective efforts to have the democratic 
order restored to Pakistan.

Ghous, three others formally arrested

KARACHI, Nov 12: Four officials of the former government, accused 
of hatching a criminal conspiracy to hijack a PIA aircraft on Oct 
12 and endangering the lives of its passengers, were formally 
arrested on Friday.

ISPR sources in Karachi confirmed that four co-accused Syed Ghous 
Ali Shah, Adviser to the former prime minister on Sindh Affairs; 
Shahid Khaqan Abbasi, ex-chairman of Pakistan International 
Airlines; Ameenullah Chaudhry, former director-general, Civil 
Aviation Authority; and Rana Maqbool Ahmed, former inspector-
general of police, Sindh, were handed over to the local police on 
Friday evening.

The sources refused to confirm whether Nawaz Sharif, the main 
accused in the case, had been formally arrested or when he was 
being brought to Karachi.

The Rangers and police had taken over the control of the MPA hostel 
near Masjid-i-Khizra and arrangements were being made to bring the 
four accused there.

A senior police officer requesting anonymity also confirmed the 
formal arrest and said the police had started investigations and 
recorded statements of several witnesses, which had strengthened 
the justification for arresting those named in the FIR 201/99 
registered with Airport police on Nov 10.

Sources said notices had been issued by the police to the crew 
members and the pilot of the plane carrying the Chief of the Army 
Staff, General Pervez Musharraf, on Oct 12. The notices had also 
been issued to other witnesses who were present at police control 
and air traffic control at Quaid-i-Azam International Airport and 

The official said former DIGs Farooq Amin Qureshi and Mohammad 
Akbar Arain, Akhtar Hussain Memon, FIA's deputy director Chaudhry 
Sharif and others had not been named in the FIR but their fate was 
yet to be decided. He said they were being interrogated, and 
thorough investigations were being carried out so that in the 
present scenario the possibility of producing them as witnesses 
could not be ruled out.

Islamabad rocked by series of explosions
M. Ziauddin & Ansar Abbasi 

ISLAMABAD, Nov 12: Six rockets crashed through the skies here on 
Friday, shattering the mid-morning air as they darted in the 
general direction of the American Embassy, the American Center and 
a building housing the UN offices.

The attacks came with only 48 hours to go before the UN sanctions 
against Afghanistan come into force.

Fired from three different vehicles, all with tinted windows, the 
rockets left at least one, a security guard at the American Center, 
injured, caused minor damage to a government building and a private 
car and totally gutted the vehicles from which they were launched.

Carrying seemingly home-made double-barrelled launchers, the three 
vehicles, two parked in the city centre (Quaid-i-Azam Avenue)) and 
one in the diplomatic enclave, were bearing fake registration 

One rocket which fell near the UN World Food Programme offices did 
not explode and was immediately defused by the bomb disposal squad. 
A couple of rockets exploded in deserted areas causing no damage.

So far no one has claimed the responsibility for the rocket attack 
while officials did not rule out foreign hand behind it.

The attacks were launched through remote-control mechanism in quick 
succession between 11:00am and 11:30am. No suspects have yet been 

Ambulance, fire-brigade and staff of bomb disposal squads were seen 
combing the city until late afternoon in search of casualties and 
unexploded rockets.

Immediately following the attacks, security of embassies, important 
personalities, public places and other sensitive points has been 
beefed up.

FIRs of these attacks have been registered in the respective police 
stations, and investigation was under way, officials claimed.

The authorities have so far come upon no clue either about those 
who had driven the vehicles into the city breaching the tight 
security of the capital, nor about those who had engineered the 

The US embassy spokesman, Mark Wentworth, when contacted, refused 
to speculate as to who was behind these rocket attacks.

Both the chief executive, Gen Pervez Musharraf, and the foreign 
office have condemned what they termed "subversive acts" and 
pledged " to expose and punish those responsible for this 
reprehensible crime."

The FO said the terrorists behind those explosions were hostile to 
the interests of Pakistan and Afghanistan.

Pakistani textiles held up at US ports
Shaheen Sehbai

WASHINGTON, Nov 12: Pakistan textile goods worth several million 
dollars have been blocked at US ports because of problems with 
export quotas, officials said on Thursday.

The US authorities have placed an embargo on Category 666-P exports 
and all shipments under this category have been blocked at the 
ports, they said.

The issue has been creating a backlog of goods being piled up at 
the ports which could incur huge demurrage charges, an exporter 

The category 666-P is for pillow cases which come with bed sheets 
(Category 666-C) in sets and both these items costing several 
million dollar are held up, he said.

The case has been complicated by lack of proper action by the 
Pakistani diplomats in Washington who have so far failed in either 
getting the shipments released or inform the exporters about the 
progress on the case.

Informed sources said Pakistani authorities have offered the US 
Customs a way out to resolve the matter by proposing that the 
stuck-up goods be adjusted against textile quotas of year 2000 but 
so far no response has been obtained on the proposal.

Pakistani diplomats in Washington, when contacted, said they were 
working on the case but were unable to say what progress had been 
made so far.

Exporters say the problem was caused because these diplomats did 
not take up the case in time with the US authorities during the 
previous government as most of them were busy "pleasing the 
Commerce Minister Ishaq Dar who appointed them to these lucrative 

"Many such inefficient and unfit cronies were appointed by the 
previous government at key world capitals, including Washington, 
Brussels, London and that is why we have to face this situation," a 
top exporter said on Thursday.

He appealed to the new authorities in Pakistan to remove these 
cronies and appoint people with genuine merit so that exports do 
not suffer.

No question to be asked on source of wealth
Ikram Hoti

ISLAMABAD, Nov 11: The federal government has announced that no 
questions on source of wealth and income would be asked if the 
listed defaulters of bank-loans or taxes/duties and utilities bills 
etc clear their dues by Nov 16.

A suitable amendment has been made by the Central Board of Revenue, 
which is authorized to ask such questions, in the Income Tax 
Ordinance 1979.

It offers complete immunity from probe into the source of income on 
the amounts paid for clearance of dues to the banks, other 
financial institutions and the government organizations to which 
the listed defaulters and tax evaders owe money.

Presently, no such blanket immunity for a period or to a section of 
loanees/taxpayers is applicable under any of the immunity clauses 
floated by the government from time to time.

The CBR officials said this immunity has been offered under the new 
government policy that incentives be allowed to the listed loan 
defaulters, tax evaders and other persons owing amounts of 
utilities and other bills to the government, who tend to otherwise 
clear their dues but are apprehensive regarding consequent probe 
into the money-source by the Income Tax department.

"Once the listed defaulters and evaders clear their dues, there 
would not be any probe, or even a question asked about the source 
of the amount paid for clearing the dues", said a senior Income Tax 

The amendment (No C. 1 (33) E&IC/99, dated Nov 11, 1999), issued 
for legalising the immunity by the CBR here on Thursday reads as 

In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (2) of Section 
14 of the Income Tax Ordinance, 1979, the federal government is 
pleased to direct that the following further amendment shall be 
made in the Second Schedule to the IT Ordinance, namely:

In the aforesaid Schedule, in Part IV, after clause (6HA) the 
following new clause shall be inserted, namely: "(6HB) The 
provision of section 13, Chapter XI or XII of this ordinance shall 
not apply in respect of any amount paid by the 16th November, 1999, 
towards the settlement of debt owed to a banking company or a 
financial institution or by way of any tax or other government 

Top bankers to be removed
Ihtasham ul Haque

ISLAMABAD, Nov 9: The government has decided to drastically cut 
down the unnecessary expenditures of banks and state-owned 
enterprises (SOEs) specially by removing from service their top 
executives, who are drawing huge salaries and enjoying other 

Informed sources told Dawn on Tuesday that the government had 
expressed concern over the state of affairs in nationalized 
commercial banks, Development Financial Institutions (DFIs) and 
other corporations.

The government believed that these banks and corporations were 
spending much more than their requirement particularly by offering 
from Rs50,000 to Rs400,000 salaries to many of their employees.

The principal secretary to the chief executive, Tariq Aziz, is 
believed to have said that the government could not afford to pay 
large salaries and fringe benefits to those who have been inducted 
in various places by the ousted govt.

Sources said that orders were being issued to the concerned 
authorities to make best use of the employees already working at 
various places instead of retaining the services of those brought 
from the private sector and foreign banks.

Examples have been cited of banks, particularly the HBL and UBL, 
where consultants were appointed on unprecedented salary packages. 
More than 50 such appointments were made in the UBL alone. They 
were not only given lucrative salaries but were also offered 
interest-free loans for house building.

This interest-free loaning of over Rs6m was extended to new 
employees of the UBL who came mostly from foreign banks, including 
the Citibank, said a source in the ministry of finance. Such 
facilities were given in other banks as well, the source said, 
adding that no employee of the UBL could get this facility of 
markup-free loan even after putting in 35-45 years of service.

Sources said the military government wanted restructuring of banks 
and the SOEs. The principal secretary to the CE would soon be 
meeting the high-ups of banks and corporations to ask them to slash 
their expenditures.

Sources said the government was taking a tough line against those 
state corporations which were incurring huge losses but still the 
number of their employees and size of expenditure were very high.

3,000 bank defaulters put on Exit Control List
Ihtasham ul Haque

ISLAMABAD, Nov 11: The federal government has put on the Exit 
Control List (ECL) names of 3,000 bank defaulters and tax evaders 
to stop them from fleeing the country.

According to official sources, the list includes the names of 
ousted prime minister Nawaz Sharif, former Punjab chief minister 
Mian Shahbaz Sharif, Ishaq Dar, Mushahid Hussain, Chaudhry Shujaat 
Hussain, Khwaja Muhammad Asif, Asif Ali Zardari, Saifur Rehman and 
some members of the Schon group.

Minister for Interior Lt-Gen Moinuddin Haider on Thursday presided 
over a meeting, here, which decided to take all possible measures 
to stop top defaulters and tax evaders from leaving the country.

An updated list of 3,000 defaulters and tax evaders was prepared 
and approved at the meeting in addition to existing list of 746 
former MNAs, MPAs and senators belonging to the four provinces, 
whose names were put on the Exit Control List.

The sources said the Central Board of Revenue had furnished a list 
of 400 major tax evaders, while the remaing names had been 
finalized by nationalized commercial banks and other financial 

The list has been provided to different agencies of armed forces, 
rangers and immigration staff posted at all international airports 
of the country.

Shaukat cautions CBR against taking tough measures

ISLAMABAD, Nov 10: The federal finance minister, Shaukat Aziz, has 
cautioned the Central Board of Revenue against applying tough 
measures like attachment of property and arrest of the listed tax 
evaders for recovery 
of the defaulted amounts.

At a meeting with the CBR officials on Tuesday, Shaukat Aziz is 
understood to have said that such tough measures might help in the 
recovery of the evaded taxes/duties but at the same time these 
would terrorise into inactivity those 250-300 top investors who 
keep the supply and manufacturing lines alive.

The meeting was attended by Gen. Amjad Hussain, chairman National 
Accountability Bureau, Riaz Hussain Naqvi, Chairman CBR, and 
Members of all federal tax-heads.

Mr. Shaukat is believed to have suggested that the recoveries be 
made in such a manner that these suppliers and manufacturers were 
not compelled to resort to hoarding and capital export. Tough 
recovery measures, whenever applied, have resulted in slump and 
further deepening of recession, and no sane policy maker would opt 
for it, he is reported to have said during the meeting.

The recoveries planned by the military government, according to 
Shaukat were aimed at cleansing the market of the anti-investment 
elements, but not to terrorise investors who can meet their past 
obligations in due course of time.

His contention was that the recoveries could be made in 
instalments, which, on the one hand, would help bring substantial 
amounts to the national exchequer, while on the other it would not 
force the defaulters to suspend their business activities 

Oncesuspended, these business activities couldtake immeasurably 
long time to resume, by which time the country would have plunged 
further deep into recession, which it cannot afford, Mr. Aziz is 
leaned to have told the meeting.

To implement this cautious plan for successful recoveries, he is 
reported to have asked the CBR officials to redraw a package (other 
than the one suggesting arrests and attachment of property) and get 
it approved by the relevant authorities. This package, say sources, 
is based on short-listing those hard nuts among the tax evaders who 
are provenhabitual defaulters and would not be persuaded through 
negotiations for a rational structure of instalments to pay back 
their dues.

Assembly of computer monitors

KARACHI, Nov 8: Philips Electrical Company of Pakistan Limited is 
actively considering to start assembling of computer accessories 
particularly monitors in Pakistan.

This was stated by the Director Consumer Products Philips Pakistan 
Limited, Shahid Zaki while addressing a press conference Monday at 
consumer electronic millennium exhibition here at a local hotel. He 
said the sales of Philips monitors has taken a quantum jump rising 
from 5,000 to 70,000 units annually during 1998-99. "Our experience 
in computer accessories is very successful and now Philip shares 65 
percent in this market", Zaki said.

He said the prices of computer accessories are cheaper by 20 to 30 
percent in Pakistan and there is no need to buy it from outside. He 
said Philips, the global company with 30 billion dollars 
investment, is leader in the world in monitor manufacturing.

The smuggling of electronic products has been checked to some 
degree after the change in the government, easing pressure on the 
profits of Philips. He said this menace had badly affected profits 
of the company in the last couple of years, but the tariff 
incentives enabled Philips Pakistan to survive. He said it will 
take some time to completely eliminate the smuggling menace which 
was discouraging local production or import of components through 
legal channel.

He urged the government to seal the border for discouraging the 
inflow of smuggling in the country and save local industry.

Zaki said profits of Philips will increase considerably if the 
smuggling is checked in the country. He said the company has been 
concentrating on further improving after sales service and added 
consumers appreciate Philips service.-APP

Govt urged to consult traders before tax levy

HYDERABAD, Nov 11: Hyderabad Chamber of Commerce and Industry 
(HCCI) has expressed grave concern over the levy of general sales 
tax and appealed to the government to take the tax-payers into 
confidence before announcing taxation measures.

In a joint statement issued here on Monday, the office bearers of 
the Chamber, Mehmood Ahmed, Dr. Zulfiqar Ahmed Yousfani, Nadeem 
Ahmed Siddiqui and others welcomed the withdrawal of tax 
concessions given to the professionals and demanded that the 
lacunas in the taxation laws should be removed.

They strongly opposed the proposal to reintroduce octroi and export 
tax and added that these levies would increase corruption manifold 
as was evident in the past.

The office bearers of the HCCI appealed to the government not to 
levy unpopular taxes such as GST, octroi and export tax as such 
taxes would create distrust between the tax-payers and the 

Tribunal for first settling terms of reference
Bureau Report

ISLAMABAD, Nov 11: The ICC tribunal, which met in London on Nov 8 
and 9 for the arbitration of a case filed by Hubco and Entergy 
Power Group against Wapda on July 9, 1998, has directed that the 
terms of reference should be agreed
 before the question of Entergy's involvement in the case could be 

Moreover, the tribunal has set a timetable for the submission of 
terms of reference by the parties by Nov 23.

Before the commencement of current arbitration hearings, Wapda had 
objected to the constitution of the arbitration tribunal and also 
to the involvement of Entergy. Wapda argued that the question of 
Entergy's involvement must be decided before the terms of reference 
for arbitration were agreed.

Entergy, on the other hand, argued that the terms of reference had 
to be set before any matter could be decided by the tribunal. 
During the hearing on Nov 8 and 9, Wapda had to concede its point 
on the constitution of the arbitral tribunal, and the tribunal 
directed that the terms of reference had to be agreed first.

Hubco could not participate in this hearing because of the 
restraint order of the Sindh High Court given in an appeal brought 
by Wapda.

Commenting on the arbitration proceedings, Hubco spokesperson Dr 
Anjum Siddiqui remarked that "Hubco has a strong case and if Wapda 
feels wronged, it should use the agreed arbitration channel of 
dispute resolution to quickly settle the two-year-old commercial 

It would have been better if Hubco could participate, but we have 
confidence that the Supreme Court would restore Hubco's rights 
under the power purchase agreement".

2m tons of wheat to be imported

ISLAMABAD, Nov 10: Pakistan will import two million tons of wheat 
worth $240m right now to meet its domestic consumption requirement 
for 1999-2000. Official sources said the present total wheat 
shortfall had been recorded at three million tons 
against earlier estimate of 1.75 million tons.

They claimed that the shortfall might reach even four million tons 
mark following the shocking disclosure made by the statistic 
division last week in its fresh report to the ministry of finance 
which said final wheat production during 1998-99 had been 
calculated at 17.8 million tons against the projected 18.6 million 

They said the situation looked grim in the face of provincial 
governments' demands to the federal government that they should be 
given extra wheat from federal government stocks, which had 
depleted due to continuous ban on wheat import by the private 
sector imposed by the previous government. Present wheat stocks 
have been reported sufficient up to February, 2000.

Giving details of wheat import requirement during 1999-2000, the 
sources said the federal government would provide 16.614 million 
tons of wheat to four provinces, with a consumption average of 124 
kg per person for population of 133.988 million ( 2.61 per cent 
increase over the last year).

Similarly, AJK will get 0.240 million tons of wheat, defence 0.200 
million tons, Northern Areas 0.040 million, Afghanistan 0.600 
million tons, strategic reserves 1 million tons, seed, feed, 
wastage ( 10 per cent of the production) 1.804 million tons.

Thus, the sources said the total domestic requirement came to 
20.498 million tons. While previous year crop production had been 
estimated at 18.6 million tons ( now revised and set at 17.8 
million tons, thus a sudden shortfall of 0.8 million tons). While 
till May 1999, the carryover stock had been estimated at 0.9 
million tons.

Thus, they said, Pakistan would be required to import three million 
tons of wheat to meet its next year requirement.

They said that presently negotiation between the ministry of 
finance and ministry of food and agriculture were under way to 
decide formalities regarding this fresh wheat import.

Giving details of the development, the sources said earlier the 
ministry of food, agriculture and livestock (MINFAL) had submitted 
a summary to the Economic Coordination Committee on Aug 27 last, 
explaining the wheat situation and requirements for 1999-2000.

They added that at that time the MINFAL had proposed an initial 
authorization to import one million tons of wheat might be 
requirement during 1999-2000, the sources said the federal 
government would provide 16.614 million tons of wheat to four 
provinces, with a consumption average of 124 kg per person for 
population of 133.988 million ( 2.61 per cent increase over the 
last year).

Similarly, AJK will get 0.240 million tons of wheat, defence 0.200 
million tons, Northern Areas 0.040 million, Afghanistan 0.600 
million tons, strategic reserves 1 million tons, seed, feed, 
wastage ( 10 per cent of the production) 1.804 million tons.

Thus, the sources said the total domestic requirement came to 
20.498 million tons. While previous year crop production had been 
estimated at 18.6 million tons ( now revised and set at 17.8 
million tons, thus a sudden shortfall of 0.8 million tons). While 
till May 1999, the carryover stock had been estimated at 0.9 
million tons.

Thus, they said, Pakistan would be required to import three million 
tons of wheat to meet its next year requirement.

They said that presently negotiation between the ministry of 
finance and ministry of food and agriculture were under way to 
decide formalities regarding this fresh wheat import.

Giving details of the fresh development, the sources said that 
earlier the ministry of food, agriculture and livestock (MINFAL) 
had submitted a summary to the Economic Coordination Committee on 
Aug 27 last , explaining the wheat situation and requirements for 

They added that at that time the MINFAL had proposed an initial 
authorization to import one million tons of wheat might be 
allowed.The ECC, however, the sources added, gave authorization of 
only 0.5 million tons of wheat import initially till the review of 
entire wheat position by a committee headed by a special secretary 

However, the sources said that due to change in government on Oct 
12 the committee could not finalize actual import requirements 
during 1999-2000.

Later, they said, the entire wheat availability position, release 
to provincial flour mills and shortfall to be met through import 
was discussed in detail with provincial food secretaries/ agencies 
at the wheat co-ordination committee (WCC) meeting held on Oct 21.

Shaukat presides meeting: Only willful defaulters to be punished
Bureau Report

ISLAMABAD, Nov 11: A high-level meeting here on Thursday decided to 
set up a committee, headed by the deputy governor of the State 
Bank, to study the cases of defaulters and propose action against 

Informed sources told Dawn that the meeting, which was presided 
over by the minister for finance, Shaukat Aziz, and attended by the 
chief of the National Accountability Bureau (NAB), Lt-Gen Syed 
Amjad Hussain, Attorney General of Pakistan Aziz Munshi and heads 
of banks and DFIs, also decided to proceed against all wilful 
defaulters to recover from them Rs50 billion. The meeting was told 
that there were 300 wilful defaulters against whom very serious 
action would be taken after Nov 16.

Deputy Governor of the State Bank A. R. Chugtai will have his two 
senior bankers included on the committee. A senior banker from any 
commercial bank and a chartered accountant will also be the member 
of the committee in order to streamline the process of recovering 
dues from the defaulters.

The committee members have been told by the finance minister that 
there should not be any harassment of the business community and 
that the air of panic must go. He has been quoted as having said 
that justice should be done with everyone.

Sources said the committee had been asked to consider 
sympathetically the genuine cases in order to provide certain 
relief. The committee would remove bottlenecks in the existing 
banking system. They said certain clauses of the banking laws were 
likely to be amended to streamline the process for the recovery of 
dues from the defaulters.

Bomb blasts intercept market's run-up 

KARACHI, Nov 12: Reports of bomb blasts in Islamabad intercepted 
the market's run-up on Friday as investors sold in a bit haste 
fearing identical terrorist attacks in other parts of the country 
and fears of law and order situation. The KSE index was off 15.17 
points 1,178.05.

The opening was, however, fairly promising, what the dealers 
called, an extension of the PTCL-led overnight strong rally but as 
the reports of three bomb blasts reached the market investors 
hastened to square positions fearing a further decline in prices.

The blasts may not have any relevance to the local political 
scenario as the venue of the incident reflects but brokers were a 
bit nervous on the perception that it could be the beginning of 
fresh terrorist attacks, an analyst said.

The market should have extended the rally initiated by the board 
meeting of the PTCL on Nov 17, and predictions of a higher dividend 
but the bad news from Islamabad intercepted it, he added.

'But the market is sure to respond positively to board meetings of 
two mega issues, PTCL and PSO during the current month amid 
predictions of enhanced dividend', said a leading floor broker.

He said the phenomenon of bank loan defaulters is there as the 
deadline of Nov 16 is coming close but in a broader sense the 
market sentiment is not influenced bearishly as it did after the 
filing of criminal cases against the former prime minister Nawaz 
Sharif on Thursday as was reflected by a smart rally.

The KSE 100-share index showed a decline of 15.17 points at 
1,178.05 as compared to 1,193.22 a day earlier, reflecting the 
weakness of some leading base shares.

Most of the price changes were again fractional, indicating a 
technical breather taken by both the bulls and the bears but the 
presence of support at the dips reflects that the near-term outlook 
is positive.

Hoechst Pakistan, which posted a gain of Rs4.00 after ruling static 
for the last several weeks led the list of top gainers followed by 
KASB & CO, which rose by Rs2.00. Third ICP Mutual Fund, Sana 
Industries, Bolan Castings, BOC Pakistan, and Engro Chemical, which 
posted gains of one rupee each were other leading among the 

But largest gain of Rs110.00 was noted in Fateh Textiles, which 
fell by Rs120.00 a day earlier. However, the fall and rise in it 
has no relevance to to the broader market as its floating stock is 

Losers were led by Al-Noor Sugar, PSO, Cherat Cement, General Tyre, 
Glaxo-Welcome, Sindh Alkalis, Sitara Chemical, Millat Tractors and 
Lever Brothers, which suffered fall ranging from Rs1.40 to Rs11.75.

Trading volume shrank to 80m shares as compared to 108m shares a 
day earlier as losers forced a strong lead over the gainers at 96 
to 62, with 37 shares holding on to the last levels.

The most active list was again topped by PTCL, off 45 paisa at 
Rs19.30 on 29m shares followed by Hub-Power, lower 20 paisa at 
Rs19.05 on 19m shares, PSO, off Rs1.40 at Rs136.10 on 13m shares 
and Engro Chemical, up one rupee at Rs111.80 on 9m shares.

Other actively traded shares were led by Fauji Fertiliser, up five 
paisa on 2.457m shares, Adamjee Insurance, easy 10 paisa on 1.313m 
shares, Bank of Punjab,lower 10 paisa on 1.085m shares, ICI 
Pakistan, off 15 paisa on 0.915m shares, Sui Northern, easy 15 
paisa on 0.609m shares, FFC-Jordan Fertiliser, lower 10 paisa on 
0.509m shares and Nishat Mills, off 30 paisa on 0.369m shares.

DIVIDEND: Atlas Lease, cash 15%, right shares at the rate of 50%, 
Pakistan Industrial and Commercial Leasing bonus shares at the rate 
of 15% for the year ended June 30, '99.

Back to the top
Jinnah's Pakistan
Ardeshir Cowasjee

DAWN of November 6 carried a news item under the headline 'PML body 
proposes challenging military rule.' It read : 'Pakistan Muslim 
League's legal committee headed by former law minister Khalid Anwer 
on Friday recommended to the Coordination Council of Pakistan 
Muslim League (N) to challenge the military takeover of the country 
in the Supreme Court.'

What will these partymen plead?

"We hereby solemnly swear that in the exercise of our gross 
ineptitude, effective corruption, insatiable greed, dangerous 
intolerance, combined with all other imaginable failings, we have 
brought about the downfall of what we held to be democracy. We 
amended the Constitution of the Republic of Pakistan at will, 
suspending all rules of procedure while doing so, with the aim of 
making our Leader all-powerful and impregnable. We successfully 
managed to totally corrupt each and every institution of state, 
other than the army.

 We did not reckon with our leader's stupidity in taking on, for a 
second time, the Pakistan Army or that his reckless ambition would 
make him commit the criminal offence of effectively 'highjacking' 
an aeroplane of his own national airline and endangering the lives 
of some 200 passengers. We created a situation in which the Chief 
of Army Staff and his men were forced to throw us out, suspend the 
mangled and mauled Constitution, and take over the governance of 
the country for an unspecified period of time."
No doubt the judiciary will judge wisely and well.

Now, what makes a democrat. A baggy shalwar, a kamiz, and an 
unbuttonable waistcoat covering what is known as a 'healthy' 
(meaning overfed) body? Does a uniform prevent a fit and trim man 
from being a democrat?

We should count ourselves fortunate that we have a man who received 
a liberal education at St Patrick's High School in Karachi, taught 
by Father Stephen Raymond, Ossie Nazareth and the likes of such men 
to differentiate right from wrong, religion from religiosity, good 
from bad, and to appreciate and experience what life has to offer. 
After matriculating he went to study at Foreman Christian College 
at Lahore. This man, we feel, will not follow the dictatorial and 
democratic pattern of enlisting religion on his side, or if the 
religious leaders are not compliant, going to the extent of 
foisting upon us a new kind of perverted religion subservient to 
his ends. We must trust that he will do his best to rebuild 
Pakistan as envisaged by its founder, Mohammed Ali Jinnah.

(US Ambassador William Milam on November 5 in Islamabad whilst 
speaking at a conference on American Studies stated that America is 
not anti-Islamic, and that the present change in the country could 
be used as an opportunity to return to the vision which Mr Jinnah 
had for Pakistan.)

General Pervez Musharraf was four-year-old, getting ready to go to 
school, when Jinnah on August 11, 1947 enunciated his 'creed' to 
his constituent assembly meeting for the first time at Karachi. 
This speech was a fine bit of rhetoric, but far too moral, truly 
democratic, free of bigotry and loaded with justice to be able to 
be digested by the philistines of that era and by those who have 
followed down the fifty-two degenerative years. Far too many loyal 
Pakistanis who have occupied leadership roles from the day Jinnah 
died right down to the ending of this century would have been far 
more at ease had he never made this particular speech. It has 
inspired fear in successive governments, has been a point of bitter 
dissent in its interpretation, and has even been officially 
distorted in print. It has been this nation's misfortune that we 
have never, after JInnah's lifetime, showed the slightest desire to 
live up to the principles he set for us.

Before the flag of Pakistan had even been hoisted, that August day 
he told the future legislators :

"You are free, free to go to your temples, you are free to go to 
your mosques or to any other places of worship in this State of 
Pakistan. You may belong to any religion or caste or creed - that 
has nothing to do with the business of the State."

Now, this particular passage has always been the main bugbear of 
the insecure, the feeble of faith, and the cowards who live by 
self-deception. The very next day it was found to be too irksome, 
it inspired fear.

In his speech, Jinnah also proclaimed that "the first duty of a 
government is to maintain law and order, so that life, property and 
religious beliefs of its subjects are fully protected by the 
State." Amongst the evils which he vowed would not be tolerated 
were bribery, corruption, blackmarketing, and "this great evil - 
the evil of nepotism and jobbery."

The definition of 'jobbery' : 'the practice of corruptly turning a 
public office, trust, etc, to private gain or advantage; the 
perpetration of jobs.' Such is the daily bread of powermongers. 
What Jinnah failed to foresee was that within less than two years 
such practices would be just a few of the prerequisites for the 
survival and maintenance of power of those who would rule after 

Fortunately for him, Jinnah did not live long enough to see his 
dream betrayed by men unworthy even to utter his name. He died 
before total disillusionment could set in (though he had his 
suspicions that it was on its way) and broke his heart. From what 
we know of him, he was that rare being, an incorruptible man in all 
the many varied meanings of the word corruption, purchasable by no 
other, swayed by no other, perverted by no other; a man of honour, 
integrity and high ideals. That the majority of his countrymen have 
been found wanting in these qualities is this country's tragedy.

What the General must now remember is that Jinnah also failed to 
perceive in his countrymen their penchant for pernicious 
sycophancy, the malignant weapon of the ambitious, that was to drag 
down many a man, make fools of many more, and with which leaders of 
this nation have found themselves unfit to combat. They succumb, 
time after time.

Power seekers are adept in the art of sycophancy, if adept in 
nothing else. Declamations of 'my imperishable and devoted 
loyalty,' 'you are not merely an individual, but an institution,' 
'your services are indispensable for the greater good of the 
country,' 'you embody the national interest,' all roll glibly off 
many servile tongues, and are transferred with the greatest of ease 
from each transient master to the next. The supreme example of 
adulation : 'When the history of this country is written by 
objective historians, your name will be placed even before that of 
Mr Jinnah,' written to Iskander Mirza by loyal Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, 
is closely rivalled by Mushahid Hussain's declaration that the 
Muslim Leaguers were but 'slaves of Mian Nawaz Sharif's thoughts.'

How many plots does a man require?
Ayaz Amir

THE service chiefs, beginning with General Pervez Musharraf, have 
set a good example by disclosing details of the properties they and 
their immediate families hold. While this is a step in the right 
direction and one which should be followed by all fat cats - 
political, bureaucratic and commercial - it also goes some way to 
reveal one of the things wrong with the Pakistani elite: it is 
over-privileged and over-pampered.

The army chief has six plots, an under-construction house in 
Karachi and two squares agricultural land in Bahawalpur. This is 
besides a house owned by his parents in Islamabad and a house in 
the name of his daughter in Defence, Karachi. The naval chief has 
three sizeable plots, a flat in his wife's name in Islamabad and 
the obligatory two squares of land in Bahawalpur. This is what he 
must have acquired while in service. What he inherited were four 
acres (repeat four acres) of barani land in Rawalpindi and six 
acres in Multan. The air chief has six plots and the inevitable two 
squares in Bahawalpur. At this rate there will not be any land left 
in Bahawalpur.

While a grateful nation would not grudge the leading defenders of 
the motherland these privileges, a person in a shantytown would be 
forgiven for thinking that there was a plot too many in all these 
lists. As Tolstoy asks in his famous short story: how much land 
does a man require?

The ironic thing is that compared to (1)the higher bureaucracy, (2) 
the politicians of the last decade and (3)the entrepreneurs who 
have made a speciality of getting loans and then declaring their 
paper enterprises as 'sick units' to have those loans written off, 
the properties of the service chiefs are, if anything, on the 
austere side. Which just goes to show how much the acquisitive 
mentality has infected the Republic's vitals. Yet we wear our 
virtue on our shirt-sleeves and sermonize loudly from the house-
tops. While the gap between rich and poor in this country is wide 
enough, more striking perhaps is the yawning chasm we have dug 
between rhetoric and reality.

Anyway, this was just a digression which like the lists of plots 
above has turned out to be longer than it should have. Of greater 
importance is to see how within this first month military rule has 
progressed and what bench-marks, if any, it has set for the future.

So far what the nation has heard is stern resolve and plenty of 
good intentions. It is a measure of how deeply unpopular the 
previous regime had become, and of how tired people generally are 
of the Benazir and Nawaz Shairf brands of democracy, that they have 
taken to the sound of General Musharraf's voice and are not only 
eager but desperate that he and his team should succeed.

It is also true, however, that so far the good intentions of the 
military government are not buttressed by too many specifics. Maybe 
it is too early to pass any judgment on this score. Even so, the 
team in the driving seat not only looks a bit unwieldy - corps 
commanders, principal staff officers at GHQ, the famous NSC, the 
patchwork cabinet, all making up quite a handful - but it also 
seems a bit vague about how it is to carry a broom through the 
Republic's stables.

A great deal will depend on how bank defaulters are tackled after 
November 16. This date has been built up so much, not least by 
newspaper ads which no one seems to realize are always an exercise 
in futility, that if the action against defaulters does not come up 
anywhere near the hype, no one should be surprised if 
disillusionment sets in early. Especially among the civic-minded 
sections of the middle class who are always more concerned about 
the country than anyone else and who, in this instance, are looking 
upon the military takeover and its threats of reform as signs of 
the final coming.

Vagueness is also visible in the monitoring mechanism which the 
army is setting up to ensure, as has been stated, good governance. 
This will function under the chief of the general staff, General 
Aziz, and go from the corps, which will keep an eye on the 
provinces, to progressively smaller units down to the district 
level. Even in theory this sounds like a half-baked idea. The CGS 
should run GHQ and keep an eye on the army. How can he monitor, 
much less understand, the functioning of government?

The matter wrong with Pakistan is institutional breakdown. Nothing, 
apart perhaps from the post office, works the way it should: not 
the provincial secretariats, not the district management group, the 
criminal justice system, the revenue departments or, indeed, the 
lynchpin of all, the criminal justice system. This breakdown will 
scarcely be helped by any 'monitoring'. It requires a serious 
effort at reform of which the military, at least for now, seems to 
have little clue. The army can jump-start the process of reform by 
banging heads together and cracking a few eggs. This is what it can 
be good at, provided of course it knows what it wants and where it 
wants to go.

Part of the problem of course is that this batch of reformers is 
learning on the job. There is nothing wrong with this except that 
if the pace shown thus far is anything to go by, we are in for a 
fairly extended apprenticeship. Who will defray the expenses of 
this exercise in learning? Obviously the nation which over the last 
52 years has had more than its fill of seeing where good intentions 
lead when not backed by understanding and vision.

Part of the problem also is that the public's honeymoon with 
General Musharraf (and, let it be stated for the record, that of 
General Musharraf's with the public) is still going strong. As long 
as this mood lasts there are not many people willing to hear 
criticism of the army, especially when in defence of the army it 
can be said that it has not had time to prove itself. To disarm 
criticism further people looking enthusiastically at the military 
takeover are saying that this is the country's last chance and that 
if after the failure of democracy the army too fails we are done 
for and our future is sealed.

This is dangerous thinking. First, it places General Musharraf on a 
pedestal and invests him with the robes of messiahdom. For this 
role he himself may not be prepared if for no other reason than 
that it imposes a crushing burden of expectations on his shoulders. 
Second, to speak in such apocalyptic terms amounts to suppressing 
the spirit of scepticism in our midst which, apart from any other 
purpose it may serve, is a necessary corrective to the fatal 
tendency, to which all Pakistani rulers sooner or later succumb, of 
wielding power arbitrarily. While a necessary corrective in all 
seasons, its importance is heightened at a time when the 
Constitution and the assemblies lie suspended in no-man's land.

Who knows this experiment turns out differently from the ones 
before it. Who knows this is the dawn we have been waiting for. 
Maybe. Even so, we should not be victims of collective amnesia and 
forget that we have been here before. Military rule has been tried 
on several occasions in the past and found wanting. While the 
practice of democracy over the last decade and a half has been a 
joke, it does not follow that the baby should be thrown out with 
the bath water. If the army loses a war, a fact not unknown in our 
history, does it follow that the army should be disbanded? This is 
faulty reasoning.

Let us also not forget that the same people at the helm now, eager 
to change the nation's destiny, misjudged and misread, to put it no 
stronger than this, the objectives and the likely consequences of 
the Kargil operation. For the sake of the country let us pray that 
they are better at governing the country than they were in handling 
something that fell within their professional competence. 

The liberal's dilemma
Irfan Husain

SEVERAL readers - most of them foreigners or expatriate Pakistanis 
- have asked me why I haven't unequivocally condemned the army coup 
of October 12.

Actually, even though I can rationalize the takeover, I do cringe 
at the thought that I am, in fact, supporting a military junta. By 
now we all know the chain of events that led to the coup, and if 
anybody recites what happened on that famous flight from Colombo 
just once more, I shall scream. We are also all too aware of Nawaz 
Sharif's blunders of omission and commission, and will no doubt 
learn of many more.

Nevertheless, those of us who believe in democracy as the only 
system that guarantees public participation and human rights feel 
that incompetent and corrupt leaders like Nawaz sharif and Benazir 
Bhutto should only be kicked out by the voters who elected them in 
the first place. Indeed, democracy has a built-in mechanism to 
ensure accountability through the ballot. Under such a 
dispensation, extra-constitutional steps to remove an elected 
government have no legitimacy. The people's will must be respected.

In this country, many members of the elite are of the firm view 
that an illiterate electorate is incapable of making the right 
choice. This arrogant perspective neglects the fact that the 
choices before the people are not exactly brilliant, and they have 
therefore had to vote on the basis of the lesser of the evils 
before them. True, both mainstream parties have their respective 
supporters but their nominees for elections are, by and large, 
serious candidates for a rogues' gallery. Also, the electoral 
exercise is the only opportunity poor voters get to extract 
promises for civic improvements from their candidates. As an 
American politician once remarked, "Ultimately, all politics are 

So while I may question the educational achievements and 
intelligence quotient of our representatives, I have no 
reservations about the wisdom of our voters. They are, by and 
large, very conscious of their rights and they cast their votes 
with all seriousness. Basically, they end up by voting for 
candidates who they think can deliver. To this extent, they are not 
concerned with allegations of corruption against them, or about 
their views on our nuclear programme and the Kashmir dispute. For 
them, the bottom line is: can the candidate get the village an 
electricity connection, and can he take on the local SHO? And if 
they vote for the district's chaudhri, it is because they think he 
can solve some of their civic problems.

Elitists who never bother to get themselves registered and stand in 
line and vote are very critical of the Pakistani voter, holding him 
responsible for the leadership that gets elected. Having abdicated 
their own responsibility, they sit in their well-appointed drawing 
rooms and confidently assert that democracy cannot work in Pakistan 
because of the ignorance of the electorate. Conveniently, they 
forget about their own apathy.

Without having lost faith in democracy as the only civilized system 
of government, I must confess to a certain degree of weariness with 
politicians who have cynically used it to attain power without 
accepting the checks and balances that go with it. For them, 
elections are an expensive and tedious exercise they have to go 
through periodically in order to make money and enhance their 
social standing. Political parties give tickets to rich candidates 
who can afford to finance their own election; almost invariably, 
they are feudals who can use their clout and clan connections to 
garner a respectable number of votes.

For me, Nawaz Sharif is the very antithesis of a democrat: here is 
a man who was first made finance minister of Punjab by the then 
governor, General Jilani, and then elevated to chief ministership 
by Zia. Finally, with ISI funding, he became the prime minister. 
While climbing up the political ladder, he used his muscle to lean 
on nationalized banks to lend him and his family hundreds of 
millions until they became one of the biggest industrial groups in 
the country. Never sated, he continued milking the system even 
after he did not need any more money.

When people ask me how I can support a military coup against a 
democratically elected government, I reply (somewhat defensively) 
that this was the only possible way of getting rid of the man. 
Having neutered all the possible threats to his autocratic rule, he 
had turned his attention to the press, and it was only a matter of 
time before this last bastion of critical speech was muzzled. Given 
his lack of respect for democratic institutions, I have no doubt in 
my mind that he would have rigged the elections shamelessly when 
the time came. Having mounted a tiger, he just could not get off: 
after what he had done to the opposition, he could not afford the 
risk of being voted out of office and facing the same fate. The 
stake were just too high for him to suddenly see the light and 
become a true democrat.

Consider the man's track record during the first half of his term: 
from having his goons storm the Supreme Court to having Najam Sethi 
of the Friday Times roughed up and held incommunicado for a month, 
he showed every sign of intolerance and fascism. But having said 
this, let me emnphasize that I do not regard military rule as a 
panacea: time and again, they have proved that they have no 
solutions to Pakistan's highly complex problems. Each time they 
have seized power, they have left a bigger mess in their wake. 
Above all, once ensconced, they never leave of their own free will.

This, then, is the liberal dilemma: how to condone a military 
takeover and the overthrow of an elected government, even though 
Nawaz Sharif was acting more and more like his mentor, General Zia. 
In the liberal lexicon, army coups are automatically evil, while 
elected governments, no matter how corrupt and inefficient, are 
preferable to military juntas.

According to conventional wisdom, the cure for a poorly run 
democracy is more democracy, not less. This school of thought holds 
that no matter what their faults, both Nawaz Sharif and Benazir 
Bhutto should have been given a chance to discredit themselves to 
the point when they would be rejected by voters. At this point, a 
vibrant new leadership would emerge. Unfortunately, by the time 
this miracle took place, I doubt very much there would have been a 
country left for this breed of honest politicians to lead.

But as far as I am concerned, the fact that leaders of religious 
parties like Qazi Hussain Ahmed and Maulana Fazlur Rahman have 
begun opposing the military regime because it is liberal is ground 
enough for me to support it. I may not be clear about whom I am 
for, but I know who I am against.

Australia canter to 10-wicket victory in first Test

BRISBANE, Nov 9: Australia wrapped up a ten-wicket win over 
Pakistan at the Gabba on Tuesday, handing expectant father Steve 
Waugh his first domestic Test victory as captain with a performance 
he rated one of the side's best of recent times.

In an extraordinary turn of events on the final day, Pakistan's 
second innings resistance crumbled with six wickets falling for the 
addition of just 58 runs to leave Australia just 74 to win with 66 
overs left.

The Australians cruised to victory with in-form openers, Greg 
Blewett (40) and Man-of-the-Match Michael Slater (32) polishing off 
the runs in 56 minutes off only 14.2 overs.

Australia have not lost a Test to Pakistan in four matches at the 
Gabba and it was their 16th victory in 44 Test meetings.

The swift denouement enabled Waugh to grab an early afternoon 
flight to his Sydney home to be with his wife, Lynette, who was in 
the process of giving birth to their second child.

"This is one of our best Tests for a long while," Waugh said. "They 
were in the game for most of the five days, but it was only the 
quick wickets this morning that put them out of the game."

Waugh's decision to send Pakistan into bat after winning the toss 
on Friday looked to have backfired when the tourists cruised to 265 
for three, but it was the final hour of the opening day where he 
believed they turned the tide. Pakistan resumed on the final day at 
223 for four and needing to occupy the crease for long periods to 
stave off defeat.

But it all went wrong from the first ball when Abdur Razzaq spooned 
a loose Shane Warne full toss straight to Ricky Ponting at silly 
Gilchrist, making his Test debut as Ian Healy's replacement, made a 
snappy leg-side stumping of Azhar Mahmood off Warne for a duck.

Akram was out for 28 and with his departure Pakistan's fate was 

Moin Khan, who blazed 61 in the first innings, was brilliantly 
caught by a diving Scott Muller at fine leg off Fleming for 17.

Fleming mopped up the innings when he bowled Shoaib Akhtar for five 
to finish with 5-95 and nine wickets for the match.-AFP

Pakistan not done with yet, says Akram

 BRISBANE, Nov 9: Pakistan's skipper Wasim Akram sifted through the 
ruins of his team's 10-wicket first Test cricket loss to Australia 
here on Tuesday and declared: "We're not done with yet."

The three-match series moves to Tasmania and the second Test at 
Hobart's Bellerive Oval starting on Nov 18, where the unpredictable 
Pakistanis have to win to keep the series alive to the third Test 
in Perth.

Although being conclusively beaten in short time on the fifth and 
final day, 380-Test wicket-taker Akram said: "We've done it before 
and we can do it again. We have a good enough side and I can assure 
you we are going to look a lot better side in the next Test match 
in Hobart."

Thirty-three year-old Akram admitted that Test inactivity had cost 
his team over the five days of the Brisbane Test, but they would 
benefit from the experience.

"We haven't played a Test match for the last six to seven months 
and in this Test it showed that we looked rusty in fielding," he 

"Players weren't used to fielding all day and after this Test we 
will definitely improve a lot as a team.

"Shoaib Akhtar didn't bowl that well, mainly because of a lack of 
bowling practice, but in the first innings he bowled 30 overs and 
that will help him.

"Mushtaq Ahmed didn't have a good game, but Saqlain Mushtaq will be 
fit for the next game so he'll come back into the side."

Akram drew positives from the team's batting where opener Saeed 
Anwar starred with 61 and 119 along with the impressive No.5 Yousuf 
Youhana's 95 and 75 and Inzamam-ul-Haq's first innings 88.

"Our batting did reasonably well considering this is our first Test 
in Australia. Whenever we come here (Brisbane) we usually get out 
for 100, but this time we got 300-plus, that was a relief for me 
and the team.

"Our batsmen have to take responsibility that if somebody's got 
100, they should carry together to score 200.

"They have to get into that habit, and I think they're getting into 
that habit now.

"It will take some time for us to adapt to the conditions here and 
we've got another two weeks until next Test."

Akram, using the experience of his 89 Test appearances, believes 
Shoaib Akhtar, the "Rawalpindi Express", will be better for the 
experience of Australian conditions.

Asked about the relations between the two teams, at a low ebb over 
match-fixing allegations four years ago, Akram said: "As a captain 
my job is that we're here to play cricket. It's not a war and after 
the game we should be friends and have a glass of milk or a coke or 

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