------------------------------------------------------------------- DAWN WIRE SERVICE ------------------------------------------------------------------- Week Ending : 29 August 1998 Issue : 04/34 -------------------------------------------------------------------

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CONTENTS ===================================================================
NATIONAL NEWS + Bill tabled in NA: Quran and Sunnat declared supreme law + Leaders see Nawaz govt in doldrums + Sun setting on Mian-BB setup: Imran + Muttahida men vacate posts in civic agencies + Foreign policy promoted national interests: Zaki + LHC exempts Benazir from personal appearance + PPP opposes governor's rule in Sindh + Pakistan may sign CTBT if curbs lifted + UN puts off discussion on airspace violation --------------------------------- BUSINESS & ECONOMY + Dual forex rates bring windfall gains to bankers + Govt to get daily report on revenue collection + Dollar shoots up to Rs61 in kerb + Participation in 50 trade fairs in jeopardy + Imports fall on 30pc LC margin + CBR package for removing anomalies + PR privatization plan moves ahead, job losses feared + PTCL will introduce global pre-paid calling service + 25pc rate of return rejected: Pak-Iran Refinery in doldrums + Traders threaten indefinite strike from Sept 1 + Rupee cash reserves reverted to 5 percent + KSE takes a pause on world markets turmoil --------------------------------------- EDITORIALS & FEATURES + The myth-makers - II Ardeshir Cowasjee + Voting with their feet Irfan Husain + What after 'strategic depth'? Eqbal Ahmad ----------- SPORTS + Miandad aims at making team a winning combination + No Pakistani on FIH list of upgraded umpires + Yousuf crowned champion after absolute thriller

Bill tabled in NA: Quran and Sunnat declared supreme law
Bureau Report
ISLAMABAD, Aug 28: Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif on Friday announced 
the enforcement of Shariat in the country, through a 15th Amendment 
Bill, declaring Quran and Sunnat the supreme law of the land.
Speaking at the National Assembly, the PM said the amendment to the 
constitution would in no way affect the rights of the minorities 
and that women would continue to enjoy equal rights vis-a-vis 
education, employment and inheritance.
Outlining the objectives of the 15th Amendment, the prime minister 
said "from now on Quran and Sunnat will be the supreme law of 
Pakistan. This should also remove all ambiguities created by 
different interpretations by different people regarding different 
decisions of courts."
"Quran and Sunnat will be constitutionally and legally supreme."
Referring to the rights and privileges of non-Muslims, the prime 
minister held out an assurance that their religious rights, 
customs, conventions and practices, rites and rituals and their 
status as citizens of Pakistan would remain unchanged.
The Quran and Sunnat, Nawaz Sharif said "categorically state that 
all pledges and promises made with non-Muslims will be kept and the 
amendment we have introduced today also clearly mentions the same."
He said that Sura Al-Haj clearly underlined the requirements upon 
the Muslims, if they are bestowed with power and authority in any 
part of the world.
These requirements include; 1) offer prayers regularly, 2) set up a 
system of Zakat so that no deserving person is left behind, 3) to 
do good, propagate good deeds and norms and 4) to eliminate all 
ills from the society.
The objective of this amendment is that the state should discharge 
these duties and weed out all the afflictions plaguing the society. 
Mere administrative measures, he said, would not suffice.

He said that the rampant mal-practices and ills would be rooted out 
from the society.
The prime minister said crime, corruption, mal-practices and all 
sorts of ills rampant in the society were in fact alien to Islam. 
Those ills, he said, had crept into the society because "we had 
drifted from the ideals for which we sought freedom in 1947."
Quoting from Surah al-Nisa he said the divine commandment called 
for negating the evil and siding with the virtue.
In Islam, the prime minister said, there was no room for petty 
ethnic and linguistic strivings and sentiments.
Submission to Allah Almighty, he said, meant submission to the way 
of wisdom, safety and moral uprightness.
The prime minister called upon the ulema to interpret the Islamic 
injunctions in the light of 'ijma' (consensus) and logic.
He said: "We could be a poor nation, with meagre resources and 
income, but we certainly are a conscientious and committed people 
wedded to the task of nation-building and cause of our national 
sovereignty and integrity. National defence is vital to us. We 
cannot sacrifice our integrity and pride for dollars or petty 
wordly gains.
"Dollar becomes cheaper or costlier, we are just not prepared that 
anyone should think that we could be a marketable or purchasable 
commodity," he declared.
About the distribution of kachcha lands among Sindh farmers, he 
said that 200,000 acres of such lands in the embankments of river 
Indus had been distributed among 20,000 farmer families. The 
remaining vacant lands from Jacobabad to Keti Bander, he said, 
would also be distributed among the 'haris'.
Leaders see Nawaz govt in doldrums
KARACHI, Aug 26: Pakistan Tehreek-i-Insaf Chairman Imran Khan has 
said that Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif has not only lost the 
confidence of his erstwhile allies in Sindh, Balochistan and NWFP, 
but also the confidence of the people of Pakistan.
Commenting on the MQM's parting of ways from Sindh government Imran 
Khan said: "It is not simply the coalition that has fallen apart 
but it has actually sounded the death-knell of an unjust system of 
governance, being kept in
place by the vested interests in Pakistan.
The PTI chief said that the provinces of the federation as well as 
overseas Pakistanis are also absolutely disillusioned by his 
capability and performance.
"The Nawaz government is finished. The longer, the Raiwind monarchy 
stays, the greater the damage to the country's integrity. The 
situation demands immediate corrective and remedial measures to 
ensure damage control," he added.
URBAN Democratic Front Chairman Hussain Haqqani said that had the 
tension between the MQM and PML been on the basis of issues 
confronting the people, their reaction would have been different, 
but as the resignations had been tendered by the organisation, they 
were neither happy nor sorry.

Recalling that despite being part of the government, the 
unjustified results of the recently held census was conceded, and 
the population of Karachi had been reduced extremely, the 
restoration of quota system resolution was adopted in the assembly 
in the presence of MQM representatives. He said Prime Minister 
Nawaz Sharif totally ignored the interests of Sindh and Karachi, 
but at that time they never thought of parting of ways on any of 
these issues.
Pakistan Awami Tehreek Sindh President Prof Dr D.A. Quaderi said it 
was another push which is crumbling the government. "The days of 
the government are numbered and the people would be relieved soon 
from a hypocrite government," he said. He said a government run on 
the basis of coercion, oppression, lies and hypocrisy could not 
long last.
Sun setting on Mian-BB setup: Imran
Staff Reporter
KARACHI, Aug 27: Pakistan Tehreek-i-Insaf chief Imran Khan on 
Thursday gave a clarion call to the countrymen to get up and 
replace the crumbling system which had been there only to protect 
exploiters, waderas, feudals and plunderers of national wealth.
Addressing a public meeting at Lasbela Chowke on Thursday night 
Imran Khan termed the prevailing set up as the "Mian-BB" system 
whose sun is now setting.
It is not the system of the poor, the workers, the peasants, honest 
traders and nationalist industrialists, he said.
He warned that if this system would be allowed to continue, it 
would be harmful for the country.
The PTI chief paid rich tributes to people of Karachi and recalled 
past struggles they had waged against the Ayub dictatorship, 
undoing of martial law regimes and for the restoration of 
democracy. He said now the time had come for Karachiites to stand 
up against the obsolete system.
Referring to the excesses which had been faced by people of 
Karachi, Imran Khan said that the new system was the need of the 
hour to serve the people without any discrimination, and which 
would not be aimed at protecting any particular set or group.
He said it were the rulers who wanted to pit the people against 
each other on one pretext or the other, to divert their attention 
while they looted, but the system which the PTI had planned to 
implement in the country would look after the interests of the 
common man, and they would not need to run after the MNAs and MPAs 
and other influential people.
Mr Khan reiterated his stance that devolution of power was the only 
solution to all the problems being faced by the people and promised 
to enforce the new system after coming to power.
He said the new system would also ensure social justice and promote 
national integrity.
The meeting was also addressed by other PTI leaders including 
Mairaj Mohammad Khan, Dr Arif Alvi, Najeeb Haroon and others.


Muttahida men vacate posts in civic agencies
Azizullah Sharif
KARACHI, Aug 27: All the six special representatives to the Sindh 
local bodies minister for Karachi Metropolitan Corporation (KMC) 
and the five district municipal corporations (DMCs) have quit their 
posts following the Muttahida Qaumi Movement's withdrawal of 
support to the Sindh government.
Moreover, the posts of chairman and vice chairman of the Karachi 
Water and Sewerage Board (KWSB) have fallen vacant as, according to 
the MQM's information desk at its headquarters 'Nine-Zero', 
contacted by Dawn to know whether all the special representatives 
of the KMC and DMC as well as the KWSB chairman and vice chairman 
had resigned, said "all these posts have automatically ceased to 
function following the tendering of resignations by the Muttahida's 
Former Sindh senior minister for local bodies and kachchi abadis Dr 
Mohammad Farooq Sattar and MPA Haroon Siddiqui were chairman and 
vice chairman of the KWSB, respectively.
The another aide to the Sindh minister for local bodies, Ms Shahida 
Chishti, who was looking after the KMC's parks, kachchi abadis and 
cultural departments affairs, has also quit her post.
Although Dr Farooq Sattar had resigned as Sindh senior minister 
last month, he had retained the chairmanship of the KWSB. Following 
Dr Sattar's resignation as local bodies minister he was replaced by 
another MQM MPA Ahsanullah Khan, who too had tendered his 
resignation with other MQM ministers to the Sindh governor on 
Those who have quit their posts of special representatives for the 
DMCs are Jawaid Ahmed of DMC-Central; MPA Wakeel Ahmed Jamali of 
DMC-East; Kamran Jaffery of DMC-West; MPA Liaquat Ali Quraishi of 
DMC-South; Abdus Sattar Ansari of DMC-Malir and MPA Dr Saghir Ahmed 
Ansari of the KMC.
The current financial year's budgets of all the five DMCs and the 
KMC were presented by the special representatives.
The KMC and the DMCs had undertaken the reconstruction work of five 
major roads of the city in April under the long-life plan which is 
a part of Greater Karachi Beatification Plan. Under the plan as 
many as 51 major and busy roads of the metropolis were to be 
reconstructed from 1997 to 2002.
The pace of reconstruction work on the six major roads of the city 
Sir Shah Suleman Road, Shaheed-i-Millat Road, Bahadur Yar Jung 
Road, Nazimabad's Ibne Sina Road, Mauripur Road and Nishtar Road  
is already slow, causing hardships to motorists owing to the 
occurrence of traffic jams of longer duration at the alternative 
routes, particularly during peak hours.
Although 14 of the total 51 major roads are scheduled to be 
reconstructed by the end of this year, the KMC and the DMCs have so 
far started work on only six such roads.
The sources were also of the opinion that with the rendering of the 
KWSB's chairman and vice chairman's posts at a time when the 
closure of water supply to the city from the Hub source was only 20 
days away might also slow down the progress of the KWSB's 
contingency plan.
The KWSB had chalked out a contingency plan to meet the water 
shortage problem in the wake of the stoppage of water to the city 
from the Hub source and it was personally being supervised by both 
the chairman and the vice chairman. 

Foreign policy promoted national interests: Zaki
ISLAMABAD, Aug 27: While the opposition senators mounted attack on 
the government's foreign policy, Senator Akram Zaki came to its 
defence saying it had promoted national interests by keeping intact 
friendships with the neighbouring countries as well as the Islamic 
ANP's Senator Bashir Ahmed Matta accused the government of being 
tied to the apron-strings of the West. He said the present 
government had failed to set clearly the direction of the foreign 
policy and played as a pawn in the game of the superpowers. 
Criticizing all the policies pursued by the successive governments 
he said as a result Pakistan had become a victim of foreign 
interference. He was specially harsh on Gen Zia-ul-Haq's foreign 
policy, saying that he promoted American interests in the region.
The senator advised the government to give a peace-oriented 
direction to the foreign policy. He lauded the Simla Accord. He 
stressed the need for forging peaceful relations with Pakistan's 
neighbours. He urged the government to desist from supporting 
Speaking on behalf of the treasury benches, Senator Akram Zaki, who 
has served as "secretary-general" of the foreign office during 
Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif's first tenure, sermonized the House on 
what is good diplomacy. Giving broad outlines of what constituted 
good diplomacy, he said the essence of good diplomacy was to reduce 
conflict and promote national interests.
He reproached those who had asserted that Pakistan had followed the 
policy of hostility and not of peace. He said the foreign policy 
had to be formulated within certain constraints. Akram Zaki claimed 
that Pakistan's policy supported the dignity of the country. He 
rebutted critics of the foreign policy who had been saying that 
Pakistan had been isolated from its friends. He said the relations 
between China and Pakistan were time-tested.
He said it was the PPP government that had committed indiscretion 
vis-a-vis China. He recalled that after coming into power, Nawaz 
Sharif visited China to remove the misunderstandings. He recalled 
that China gave balance of payment support to Pakistan and both the 
countries were now working jointly on manufacture of a tank.
Sen Zaki also gave details of steps being taken by Pakistan for 
improving relations with Iran. He said that Pakistan has 
strengthened relations with the Islamic countries. About 
Afghanistan, he said that if Pakistan had not reacted to Soviet 
Unions's intervention in Afghanistan, "we would have been living 
under the Soviet shadow". After the withdrawal of the Soviet  
forces from Afghanistan, he conceded, the US stance changed.
On Indian nuclear tests, Zaki said: "We had no option but to go for 
the tests." He asserted that by opting for the tests, Pakistan 
restored geo-strategic and psychological balance in the region. He 
claimed Pakistan was ready for a dialogue with India.
He defended Pakistan prime minister's dialogue with his 
counterpart, and said Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif's policy was to 
protect Pakistan's integrity. "On Kashmir we should pursue the 
policy of dialogue," he said.
Akram Zaki said if war broke out between the two countries, it 
would be a great catastrophe. "The object of the foreign policy is 
to reduce the frictions and continue the dialogue, the senator 
said. He said Pakistan had to deal with ground realities and said 
"we cannot wish away political relations". In politics, he said, we 
must follow the policy of appeasement.

Senator Shafqat Mahmood said there was no element of self-respect 
in Pakistan's foreign policy. He asked the government to apprise 
the senators to what extent national objectives were promoted. He 
said it was during the tenure of the PML government that Aimal 
Kansi was arrested by an FBI raiding party from Pakistan's 
territory. Kansi, he said, was not produced before a Pakistani 
magistrate in accordance with the country's law and was flown 
straight to the US. Similarly, he said, Howaida was sent to Kenya 
without trying him under Pakistan's law.
The opposition senator said during the 18 months of the present 
government, the foreign investment has declined sharply. He also 
criticized the government attitude with the IPPs.
Senator Shafqat cited reports that Pakistani goods were not being 
accepted abroad any more on one pretext or the other. He described 
the foreign policy as being a total failure. He found fault with 
the government's claim of internal stability.
He referred to Senator Zaki's statement in the House in which, 
citing a newspaper interview of a veteran politician (Abdul Wali 
Khan), it was insinuated that he was a traitor. The senator said 
for internal stability it was essential that "we should carry along 
with us all the provinces, all the political parties, big or small 
and should not cause damage to the national interests through any 

LHC exempts Benazir from personal appearance
RAWALPINDI, Aug 27: The Lahore High Court, Rawalpindi Bench, on 
Thursday exempted Ms Benazir Bhutto from personal appearance in the 
court till Oct 25, and modified its earlier order of freezing her 
bank accounts.
The court, comprising Justice Mohammad Nawaz Abbasi and Justice 
Shaikh Amjad Ali, however, ignored her request that the court order 
should be couched in such a language that she was allowed to 
operate her bank account.
Stating that it had frozen only Rs1,500,000, details of which were 
provided by the prosecution, the court stated that it had passed an 
order identical to the one issued on Wednesday by the Ehtesab Bench 
of the Lahore High Court.
Ms Bhutto, who appeared along with her husband, Asif Ali Zardari, 
had addressed the court herself. She had requested the court not to 
limit the operation of her account to Rs1,500,000 as there was 
"much more" money in her account.
The court accepted the application of Ms Bhutto requesting to grant 
her exemption from personal appearance as she wanted to travel 
abroad to attend seminars and deliver lectures in American 
The special prosecutor, Malik Mohammad Rafiq, said he had no 
objection to granting of exemption provided this exemption was not 
used by her to seek further adjournments on the pretext that her 
counsels needed instruction from her. He further stated that the 
exemption granted by the Ehtesab Bench, Rawalpindi, would not be 
valid in regard to her appearance in the other courts.
The court accepted that from Sept 6 up to Oct 5 Ms Bhutto would not 
be required to appear in the court.
It may be noted that advocate Babar Awan, counsel for the 
opposition leader, has requested the court to pass an order 
consistent to the order passed by the Ehtesab Bench of the Lahore 
High Court on Wednesday. At this stage, Ms Bhutto intervened and 
stated before the court that she was not "begging for charity" as 
it was her own money in her account that she wanted unfrozen. She 
said that she had survived even when her accounts were frozen.
She said the court order to freeze her accounts, without hearing 
her on April 27, had caused her great monetary loss and mental 
anguish because of the stigma associated with it.
"If you want to keep my money with you, God will give me more," she 
remarked in a highly charged voice.
She said great injustice was being done to her through the courts 
and added: "Almighty Allah is witnessing everything."
She further said it was her crime that she restored peace in  Karachi; got
the Brown Amendment passed; saved Pakistan's nuclear 
programme from a roll-back and took the country out of the danger 
of being declared a terrorist state. Recalling the services that 
she had rendered for the country, she asked the court whether she 
deserved the treatment being meted out to her.
Ms Bhutto said a bank defaulter whose bank accounts would not be 
frozen by the courts was persecuting her. Her voice choked when she 
was addressing the court which heard her with patience.
The court stated that it had frozen only that account which had 
only Rs1,500,000 and allowed to use Rs1,300,000 out of that. The 
court would further allow her to use the remaining amount, it said.
The special prosecutor, Mujeebur Rahman said after her formal 
indictment, the request to unfreeze Ms Bhutto's accounts should not 
be accepted.
Everyone, including judges burst into laughter Ms Bhutto cursed the 
public prosecutor: "I pray to God that all your properties catch 
fire." The public prosecutor said that he had all the respect for 
her even though she had cursed him.
Ms Bhutto further stated that the order of the court was used by 
the government to strangulate her financially. The State Bank, she 
said, issued a circular to all the banks that she should not be 
allowed to operate any of her accounts. The court noted in its 
order that any order of any bank contrary to what had been stated 
in the court order would not be effective.
The court adjourned the hearing till Oct 1 as the counsels for Ms 
Bhutto and for the ARY Gold directors requested for adjournment.
Earlier, Javed Talat, former finance secretary, submitted an 
application in which he prayed the court to direct the government 
to provide him certain summaries of cabinet division and commerce 
ministry to defend himself.
He also asked for the details of the revenue which the government 
was getting by licensing the import of gold and silver. He also 
informed the court that he had engaged Abdul Hafeez Pirzada as his 
senior counsel.

PPP opposes governor's rule in Sindh
By Our Reporter
KARACHI, Aug 26: Pakistan People's Party has opposed any move to 
impose governor's rule in Sindh after the resignations by Muttahida 
Qaumi Movement from ministerial posts and called upon the Governor 
to ask the chief minister to prove his majority and take a fresh 
vote of confidence.
Addressing a news conference, the leader of the opposition in Sindh 
Assembly, Nisar Khuhro, said that imposition of Governor's rule 
would be tantamount to trampling with the sanctity of the 
If they imposed the governor's rule, then Mian Nawaz Sharif and the 
main functionaries had no right to run the system, he said, adding: 
"They are conspirators against the federation".
He said the MQM had resigned from the ministership and not from the 
membership of the assembly which remained intact. The whole 
assembly should not be made to pay for the incompetence of one 
person or the government, Mr Khuhro said.
He flayed the reports that the federal government had decided to 
impose the Governor Rule in Sindh and said it would be against the 
democratic norms.
He demanded of the government of PML to inform the people about the 
charge sheet against the present provincial government.
He said the people had the right to know the charges, whether the 
government was inefficient or did it act against the provisions of 
the constitution.

Pakistan may sign CTBT if curbs lifted
Nasir Malick
LONDON, Aug 25: Pakistan has indicated to the United States that it 
will consider signing the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) 
provided economic sanctions are lifted, but will not forgo its 
nuclear capability under any circumstances.
"The decision (to sign CTBT) will be taken by the government of 
Pakistan in the supreme national interest but the most important 
factor in determining that decision is the removal of coercive 
atmosphere prevailing (because of economic sanctions)," Foreign 
Secretary Shamshad Ahmad told Dawn soon after emerging from talks 
with the US Undersecretary of State Strobe Talbott.
"No country can even afford to be seen as negotiating an agreement 
under coercion or suppression, so we shall take a decision in 
regard to (signing) CTBT when we are sure that the climate of 
coercion is no longer there," Mr Ahmad said.
Although the Pakistan high commission had tried its best to keep 
the venue of the meeting secret, two Pakistan journalists succeeded 
in locating that the talks were being held at Churchill Hotel in 
the Marble Arch area of Central London and reached there.
The five-hour-long talks at the sixth floor of the Churchill Hotel, 
where Mr Talbott is staying, started at 11am.
The Pakistan side, led by the foreign secretary, included 
Pakistan's ambassador to Washington Riaz Khokhar, Pakistan's 
ambassador to Geneva Munir Akram and Additional Foreign Secretary 
Tariq Altaf.
Mr Ahmad, who was surprised to see Pakistani reporters at the 
hotel, said the Americans were also fully aware of the fact that 
Pakistan would not take any decision under these circumstances.
However, he made it clear that he was not here to sign any 
agreement but to discuss the issues relating to overall peace and 
security of the South Asian region. "We are discussing all these 
matters and the decision will be taken by the government of 
In answer to a question, he said the whole issue of signing the 
CTBT would be dealt once Islamabad was convinced that it's national 
interests were fully safeguarded.
The foreign secretary said the people should not misunderstand the 
CTBT as it was a one-clause regime which, if signed by Pakistan, 
would only bar Islamabad from conducting any further nuclear 
The "CTBT does not impair or undermine our nuclear capability," he 
said, adding that "we have conducted our nuclear tests and 
established a strategic balance vis-a-vis India and attained a 
minimum deterrent capability."
TALKS WITH INDIA: The foreign secretary said he also informed the 
US Undersecretary of State about the consistent refusal of the 
Indian government to resolve Kashmir issue through peaceful 
He said he briefed the US side about Pakistan's experience with 
India over seeking solution through peaceful means. "We told them 
that Pakistan made an earnest effort for the resumption of dialogue 
but due to inflexibility of India, the dialogue remained 
He said he told Mr Talbott that Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif had 
went to Colombo with an "open mind" to resume dialogue with his 
Indian counterpart but the Indian side showed no flexibility in its 
attitude. "Unfortunately, in Colombo we found the Indians as 
inflexible as ever."
He said Mr Talbott expressed US support for the early resumption of 

talks between New Delhi and Islamabad on all issues, "including 
UN puts off discussion on airspace violation
UNITED NATIONS, Aug 25: The United Nations Security Council on 
Monday put off a request by Pakistan for a meeting to consider 
airspace violations by the United States in attacks on Afghanistan 
and Sudan.
Although Sudan had called for a meeting last Friday, Pakistan 
submitted its complaint on Monday morning asserting that the 
airspace violation, "if condoned, sets a precedent which can 
encourage other countries to pursue aggressive designs against 
their neighbours on flimsy or unsubstantiated pretexts."
Sudan has called upon the Security Council to send a team of 
investigators to Khartoum to determine whether or not Shifa medical 
factory destroyed by US missiles last Thursday produced any 
chemicals related to VX gas as claimed by the Americans.
The Security Council on Monday was not moved by a request by Arab 
nations  submitted by one of the United States' closest Arab 
allies, Kuwait to send inspectors to search the rubble in Khartoum 
for signs of chemicals related to VX.

Dual forex rates bring windfall gains to bankers
Mohiuddin Aazim

KARACHI, Aug 27: The dual exchange rates system provides both 
bankers and money brokers a chance to earn windfalls at the cost of 
those who do not comprehend its complexities. The admission was 
made by the chairman of money brokerage KAS&B, Nasir Ali Shah 
Bokhari while speaking at a seminar here on Thursday.
The seminar held at the Institute of Business Administration and 
Chaired by its Director Dr Abdul Wahab discussed the impact of dual 
exchange rates system on Pakistan economy. The system was 
introduced by the State Bank of Pakistan on July 22.
"The benefits of the new system - if there exist some - are short-
lived," Bokhari said before identifying its harms. "The problems of 
over-invoicing and under-invoicing have come in because of the huge 
gap between the official and inter-bank exchange rates."
He felt Pakistan could not continue with the dual exchange rates 
system after an IMF bail-out package - a reference to IMF Article 
VIII which refrains member nations to practice such a system. "We 
would possibly go back to a fixed system in less than two months," 
Bokhari said after pointing out that the current system could not 
deliver the good in the absence of large export surpluses.
Other speakers also observed that the incentive the exporters had 
got through dual exchange rates system was not enough to offset its 
negative impacts as Pakistan has a narrow export base.
"This (system) can possibly lead to price distortions," said the 
Country Manager of ABN Amro, Muhammad Aurangzeb. "The system can 
also lead to inefficiencies in the manufacturing sector and 
misallocation of resources," he observed.
He said: "There is a feeling that the government is protecting the 
agriculture sector and if you look at the basket the idea is, it is 
being done to lower the inflation."
He felt the IMF could demand "a phased exit- if not a quick exit" 
from dual exchange rates system before offering a rescue package. 
"Future multilateral aid likely to entail an up-front devaluation 
of maybe 9-11 per cent," he said.
Aurangzeb said if this system continues State Bank profits may also 
go down by an estimated Rs10.5 billion because it would have to buy 
dollars from the inter-bank market to fill the gap between supply 
and demand.
The Country Treasurer of Emirates Bank, Feroz Ansari said by 
introducing a dual exchange rates system Pakistan had joined a club 
of poor economies with serious problems. But he felt that the 
country had very little economic choices available except for this 
"This system is difficult to implement...it is difficult to monitor 
and manage but it is a step towards further liberalization," Ansari 
said while concluding his presentation.
Dr Wahab criticized the role of economic managers who he said take 
most decisions "on the directives of big powers and big powers are 
not interested in the welfare of Third World countries."

Govt to get daily report on revenue collection
Ikram Hoti
ISLAMABAD, Aug 27: The ongoing financial crunch of the government 
has forced it to opt for a new system of instant reporting on 
revenue collection on daily basis from the central bank.
Sources said that the new system is planned to be based on a 
computerized network for faster transmission of information. 
Under the present system the government was informed of a day's net 
revenue amount collection after the lapse of at least four days. In 
a meeting of senior officials held at the CBR on Thursday, a plan 
for streamlining reporting systems was okayed for final approval of 
the federal government which would be accorded to it "hopefully on 
Friday", said an official.
Dollar shoots up to Rs61 in kerb
Staff Reporter
KARACHI, Aug 27: The price of the US dollar rose to Rs 61 in the 
open market on Thursday as its demand soared due to rising economic 
The dollar closed in the open market at Rs 60.80 for buying and Rs 
61.00 for selling around 3.p.m. but money changers said it fell 
marginally in the evening. On Wednesday the dollar had closed at Rs 
60.00 and Rs 60.20 for spot buying and selling.
Official rates remained unchanged at Rs 46.00 for buying and Rs 
46.23 for selling. State Bank Composite rates based on average 
buying and selling rates of selected banks were quoted at Rs 49.91 
and Rs 50.28 per dollar.
This is for the first time that the greenback has crossed Rs 60 
mark during the current month.
The rupee has shed Rs 4.0 or 7 per cent to a dollar during the last 
two weeks in the open market largely owing to panic-buying by 
inflation-ridden common people and greedy speculators out to 
stockpile dollars for profit-taking.
On Aug 11 the spot buying and selling rates of the dollar stood at 
Rs 56.90 and Rs 57.00.
"People turned panicky today after MQM withdrawal from Sindh 
coalition government...and made a run on the greenbacks," said 
Anwar Jamal of Galaxy Internationala leading money exchange.
He and some other money changers said the dollar had touched Rs 62 
mark in early trading but as the buying euphoria slowed the rate 
fell to Rs 61 in the afternoon and even below that in the evening.
The rupee also fell sharply against other major currencies in the 
open market on Thursday and closed at 99.50/99.70 to pound 
sterling; 197/197.20 to Kuwaiti Dinar; 16.00/16.65 to UAE Dirham 
and 16.10/16.15 to Saudi Riyal. On Wednesday it had closed at 
98.00/98.10 to the pound; 194.86/195.06 to Kuwaiti Dinar; 16.00/ 
16.38 to UAE Dirham and 15.95/16.00 to Saudi Riyal.

Participation in 50 trade fairs in jeopardy
Sabihuddin Ghausi
KARACHI, Aug 27: Acute foreign exchange scarcity is threatening 
Pakistan's participation in more than 50 international trade fairs 
to be held at various business centres in the world during the 
current fiscal year.
Simultaneously, at stake is also Export Promotion Bureau's ability 
to sponsor visit of over a dozen trade delegations during 1998-99 
to more than 35 countries for exploring export business mainly 
because of foreign exchange crunch.
Export promotion planners consider participation in foreign 
exhibitions and visit of trade delegations abroad vital tools of 
their strategy to push up exports.
But now that after spending more than 400 million dollars in the 
last four years in organizing such participation in foreign trades 
and sponsoring visits of market exploration delegations abroad, 
without obtaining any results as total annual export earnings 
stagnates at 8 to 8.5 billion dollars, top bureaucrats in the 
finance ministry are now reluctant to release foreign exchange for 
this purpose.
Finance ministry in Islamabad is reported to have advised Export 
Promotion Bureau to stop sending its officials abroad for 
organizing arrangements of participation in the foreign fairs and 
instead rely either on the incharge of Pakistan's local trade 
office in that country, if it is there or assign a senior officer 
of Pakistan's embassy to do the job.

"The Bureau has been asked to place its foreign exchange 
requirements on fortnight basis," a senior official of the Bureau 
confided who said the practice hitherto was to make this demand on 
quarterly (three months) basis which provided export promotion 
planners enough room to manoeuvre and obtain results.
For 1998-99 the Bureau has prepared a plan to organize 
participation on official level in 26 international exhibitions to 
be held in Europe, USA, Asia and Australia. Besides these various 
chambers of commerce and industry and trade bodies were also given 
the task to organize Pakistan's pavilion and display products in 41 
exhibitions with support of the Bureau.
In addition, the Bureau has planned visit of 13 trade delegations 
to explore new markets like Vietnam and Myanmar, Australia, New 
Zealand and Fiji, Central Asian republics and also to push up 
exports of specific items like pharmaceuticals, auto parts, 
footwear, fruits and a host of other non-traditional items.
The Bureau needs about 125 to 135 million dollars to finance these 
programmes in 1998-99 but apparently lacks "someone with weight" to 
take up this case in convincing manner in Islamabad.
Release of foreign exchange to carry out export promotion measures 
and necessary follow up steps suggested in 1998-99 trade policy are 
being awaited when already two months of the fiscal year are about 
to expire.
One of the measures suggested in trade policy is to set up a Rs 5 
billion fund to help small and medium size enterprises in 
upgradation of their exportable products and plan market strategy.
"An initial working paper has been prepared for this purpose which 
needs lot of vetting and inputs from exporters, bankers and finance 
ministry," an official confided. "It is doubtful if fund will ever 
be created and small and medium enterprises will benefit at least 
in the current fiscal year,"a relatively junior level official 
remarked in a bitter tone.
"The government has not amended sales tax act yet to exempt 
exporters from this levy in local purchases," Wajid Jawwad, Chief 
of the Export Committee of Federation of Pakistan Chambers of 
Commerce and Industry said. Wajid has been involved in preparation 
of the SROs and notifications to be issued by commerce and finance 
ministries for translating measures suggested in trade policy into 
operational plans.
As if all this administrative slackness in shaping a practical 
export strategy is not enough a conflict has emerged among the 
exporters. The powerful All Pakistan Textile Mills Association 
(APTMA) is reported to have demanded export refinance facility on 
export of coarse yarn which has not been taken in good humour by 
the exporters of value-added textile products.

Imports fall on 30pc LC margin
Intikhab Amir
PESHAWAR, Aug 25: As a consequence of the imposition of a minimum 
cash margin limit of 30 per cent by the State Bank of Pakistan on 

letters of credit (LCs), other than exempted items, imports have 
fallen sharply, affecting customs revenue, sources said.
"Imports have drastically fallen down and so has the customs duty 
as the importers are showing restraint to open LCs in the light of 
changes brought about by the SBP on July 12, last," said the 
According to figures collected from the customs authorities here, 
gross revenue collections under the head of customs duty in July 
1998 stood at Rs99.84 million, some 48.61 per cent lower than the 
monthly target of Rs194.28 million set for July last.
Net collections under this head remained at Rs91.31 million, again 
some 50.84 per cent lower than the monthly target of Rs185.73 
In comparison to the gross collections on account of customs duty 
in the corresponding period in the 1997-98 financial year, the 
Rs99.84 million recovered in July 1998 is 45.67 per cent lower than 
the amount recovered in July 1997 when the collections had ended up 
at Rs183.76 million.
Net collections of Rs91.31 million made in July 1998 are 43.02 per 
cent lower than the Rs160.24 million amount recovered in July 1997.
"It means if on the one hand revenue generation on account of 
customs duty has gone down, on the other it is also going to affect 
receipts under the head of sales tax and central excise duty as 
decline in raw material's import is likely to hit hard the 
production and manufacturing sector of the country," said the 
Official as well as sources from the private industrial sector 
apprehended that if the prevailing situation continues in the 
longer run it might cause closure of industries rendering many 
people jobless.
In a situation like this, said a CBR source at Islamabad, 
government was giving attention to the recovery side, and added, 
"during the last couple of weeks the Central Board of Revenue has 
issued extra ordinary special instructions to the tax authorities 
with a larger focus on the recovery side".
"We are just concentrating on recovering stuck-up amount under the 
heads of customs duty, CED and what else is on our agenda including 
impounding the smuggled vehicles," said an NWFP customs officials.
The Rs99.84 million gross recoveries made in July 1998 under the 
head of customs duty in NWFP, said another official, had largely 
been contributed to by the revenue generated against the imports of 
fresh fruits from Afghanistan.
If compared to the gross recoveries made in June 1998 (the last 
month of the 1997-98 financial year), the amount collected in July 
1998 is 778.80 per cent lower than the amount of Rs471 million 
recovered in the corresponding period of 1997.
In terms of net collection, this time round, revenue collection has 
recorded decline by 80.32 per cent as in July 1997 net collections 
under the head of customs duty stood at Rs 464.01 million.

CBR package for removing anomalies
ISLAMABAD, Aug 26: The Central Board of Revenue has presented a 
package of proposals to the Planning Commission and ministry of 
commerce on anomalies arising out of the Federal Budget 1998-99.
Sources said that the joint meeting of representatives of Planning 
Commission, ministry of commerce, National Tariff Commission, 
Engineering Development Board, CBR and other relevant government 
organizations would be held shortly, to discuss the amount of 
revenue involved in removal of these anomalies.
The complaints by the trade and business sectors against 
distortions in taxes incorporated in the budget have been examined 
by the National Tariff Commission and Central Board of Revenue for 
the past about two months. But the meeting of the anomaly committee 
was awaited to issue guidelines.
The anomalies have been pointed out in electronics, auto-parts, 
woollen blankets, plastic, bicycles, engineering and chemicals 
sectors. Except for the engineering, all other sectors had been 
complaining that they had not been protected against the 
competition from smuggling syndicates operating since long and 
eroding their sales. They claim that cost of local production has 
risen by 40-45 per cent during the financial years 1995-96, 1996-97 
and 1997-98.
"All these complaints have been addressed in the proposals for 
removing the anomalies", said a ministry official on Wednesday. He 
did not give the date when the anomaly committee's meeting would be 
held for final settlement of these issues, but said it would be 
held "soon enough".

PR privatization plan moves ahead, job losses feared
KARACHI, Aug 22: The Pakistan Railways is being primed up for 
privatisation, with preparations under way to set up three 
companies and a residual authority for railway employees.
The three companies, proposed to be set up by the Pakistan Railways 
during the next couple of months, would include 'Passenger', 
'Freight' and 'Infrastructure'.
Whereas the Passenger Com-pany would absorb about 20,000 employees, 
the Freight Company would employ 15,000 and the Infrastructure 
20,000 employees, respectively. 
The railway officers would also be adjusted in them.
The residual authority would absorb about 40,000 railway workers, 
who would be employed in the hospitals, schools, accounts 
department and general stores.
In total the Pakistan railways has about 100,000 employees, of 
which 40,000 had offered to take the golden handshake offered by 
them last year.
According to the divisional superintendent of Pakistan Railways, 
Nasir Zaidi, the federal government has taken no decision on the 
fate of these employees who had opted for the golden handshake.
He termed the railways decision to form the companies as preparing 
the Pakistan Railways for privatization.

The Railway Workers Union however expressed concern over the 
formation of companies and setting up of the "residual authority", 
saying the authority was the railway's equivalent of setting up a 
surplus pool.
According to Railway Workers Union president, Manzoor Razi, since 
the government was slowly eliminating the hospitals, schools and 
stores run by the government, the railway employees put in the 
surplus pool could eventually lose their jobs.
He maintained that the government had taken the decision  to put 
employees in the sur-plus pool since it was primarily technical 
workers in grades 1-5 who had opted for the golden handshake.
At the same time, he said practically none of the officers enjoying 
higher salaries and privileges had opted for the golden handshake.
Pakistan Railways is without a minister following the removal of 
Yaqoob Nasir by the federal government last week.

PTCL will introduce global pre-paid calling service
Bureau Report
ISLAMABAD, Aug 24: Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited 
(PTCL) here on Friday signed a contract with World Call Limited 
(WCL) to introduce international pre-paid calling service in the 
country which will be useful for overseas Pakistanis.
The intelligent network platform (INP) and pre-paid calling card 
service (PCCS) will be introduced at a cost of about Rs150 million 
by the WCL, and will generate an additional estimated revenue of 
Rs250 million for PTCL annually.
According to PTCL, the new service will be operative within next 
six months, particularly aimed at benefiting the overseas 
Pakistanis to communicate with their friends and relatives around 
the world.
WCL will bring INP to support PCCS through interconnection with 
PTCL gateway exchanges at Karachi and Islamabad.
The PCCS is a modern value-added service, which will facilitate 
direct international dialling, and the charges will be debited to 
the pre-paid card instead of individual telephones.
This service will promote international direct dialling traffic and 
the persons, who even do not have a phone, will be able to make 
international calls. The calls will be possible from any telephone 
through pin code followed by desired telephone number.

25pc rate of return rejected: Pak-Iran Refinery in doldrums
Rafaqat Ali
ISLAMABAD, Aug 24: The fate of $1.2 billion-worth Pak-Iran Refinery 
has become uncertain after Pakistan government's decision not to 
allow 25 per cent rate of return to sponsors.
No breakthrough has been achieved so far as Iran is insisting that 
Pakistani government should allow 25 per cent rate of return as 
provided in the Petroleum Policy 1994.
The government which is ready to provide other incentives is not 
willing to by-pass its Petroleum Policy 1997, as it feels that if 
one company was allowed a waiver there would be no end to it, Dawn 
The petroleum ministry has taken the position that if the 
government of Pakistan wanted to honour its previous commitments 
with Iran, it should review the stand the federal finance ministry 
had taken in 1995, and not on the Petroleum Policy 1997. The 
federal finance ministry had opposed the guaranteed return of 25 
per cent on equity in 1995 even when 1994 petroleum policy was in 
The finance ministry had informed the Iranian government, through a 
separate note, that Pakistan government was working on new 
petroleum policy in which guaranteed return on equity would not be 
Iran-Pak Refinery, a joint venture project of PERAC of Pakistan and 
National Iranian Oil Company, has run into snags due to withdrawal 
of 25 guaranteed rate of return under the new petroleum policy. 
The project which is proposed to be developed in Hub, Balochistan, 
is lingering on for last 8 years and both the governments have 
spent a sizable amounts on the development of sites for the joint 
venture and on preparation of feasibilities of the project.
"It is not possible for the ministry of petroleum to review its 
1997 petroleum policy, but if the finance ministry wants to review 
its position it took in 1995 regarding the guaranteed return of 25 
per cent on equity, it is up to the government," Dr Gulfraz Ahmed, 
Federal Petroleum Secretary told Dawn when reached for his 
The IPRP, if established, will double the refining capacity of 
Pakistan. It will have capacity of processing six million tons 
heavy Iranian crude oil per annum, to produce LPG, HOBC, and 
various grades of gasoline, kerosene and high speed diesel.
Traders threaten indefinite strike from Sept 1
KARACHI, Aug 25: Traders have threatened to pull down their 
shatters throughout the country from Sept 1 if the government fails 
to change the dual system of general sales tax (GST) and fixed tax.
They also decided to continue the strike till the acceptance of 
their demands. The decision in this regard was taken at the all 
Sindh convention of Karachi Tajir Action Committee (KTAC) and the 
All Sindh Anjuman Tajiran on Tuesday.
Speakers at the convention criticized the government's indifferent 
attitude towards the problems of the trading community despite its 
claim of being "their representative."
They claimed that traders were being ruined while the bureaucrats 
were spending lavishly on purchase of luxury cars.
On this occasion, the president of the Anjuman Tajiran Punjab, 
Azhar Saeed Butt, criticized the government's policy, saying that 
under the present conditions, the traders could not continue their 

KTAC chairman Abdul Waheed said the trading community was the 
backbone of the nation's economy, but regretted that the present 
government despite its claim of being "their representative" had 
deprived them of their rights.

Rupee cash reserves reverted to 5 percent
Mohiuddin Aazim
KARACHI, Aug 26: Banks would need to keep 5 per cent of their total 
rupee deposits instead of 3.75 per cent as cash reserves from Sept 
5, 1998.
Bankers say the decision announced by the State Bank on Wednesday 
would not bring in a major change in the inter-bank market. But it 
would create room for them to employ more of their surplus funds in 
the market.
The decision requires the banks to continue to keep 5 per cent of 
foreign currency deposits as cash reserves so it is not likely to 
have a direct impact on availability of foreign exchange in inter-
bank market.
SBP decision conveyed through a circular (BPRD 33) says banks would 
revert to the old system of maintaining cash reserves on both rupee 
and foreign currency deposits on weekly average basis.
The current system of keeping 5 per cent cash reserves on foreign 
currency deposits and 3.75 per cent on rupee deposits on a daily 
basis would end on Aug 31. The deadline was set on June 21, 1998 
when the new system was put in place to ease off the liquidity 
crunch the banks were facing due to rapid conversion of foreign 
currency deposits into rupees and also due to withdrawals from 
rupee accounts.
The circular says that for the purpose of calculating the cash 
reserve requirements on weekly basis Saturday would be taken as the 
first day of the week. If a Saturday is a holiday then the last 
working day would be considered the first day of the week.
The circular instructs the banks to go by the rules laid down in 
SBP circulars BPRD 25 of 26 July 1998 and BPRD 32 of 15 August 1998 
for maintaining cash reserves on foreign currency and rupee 
deposits. "It means banks would be able to keep 4 per cent cash 
reserves both on foreign currency and rupee deposits on any day but 
they would be required to have an average 5 per cent reserve on 
weekly basis," explained a senior banker.
"It also means that if any bank maintains the average weekly 
balance of 5 per cent but fails to maintain a minimum balance of 4 
per cent on daily basis it would be penalized." The banker said SBP 
move would enable the banks to employ more of surplus funds in the 
inter-bank market on a day to day basis that might lead to further 
cut in the lending rates.
Bankers say inter-bank money market has remained awash with excess 
liquidity for the last several weeks facilitating the government to 
make huge borrowing for budgetary support at a low cost. They say 
it has created problems for the banks with surplus funds who are 
getting meagre returns if the funds are employed for overnight or 
shot term lending.

Overnight call rates dropped below 1 per cent only recently much to 
the chagrin of the lender banks.
KSE takes a pause on world markets turmoil
Staff Reporter
KARACHI, Aug 28: Stocks on Friday took a pause apparently awaiting 
some fresh news about the turmoil on the world markets led by the 
Wall Street after the crash of the Russian rouble and its likely 
impact on Asian currencies but there was no major jolt as far as 
the local trading was concerned. The KSE 100-share index fell 6.26 
But rather some of the leading MNCs attracted a good bit of short-
covering at the lower level under the lead of ICI Pakistan, Hub-
Power and some others on the perception that their principal shares 
could gain from the current plunge, some dealers said.
A member of the KSE said if the Russian and Japanese financial 
crisis further deepen it will certainly create a sympathetic 
turmoil on the Asian markets and Pakistan could hardly be an 
'The KSE despite having an extremely narrow capital base is inter-
linked to over 100 countries through the Reuter cable network and 
is prone to negative external factors,' he claimed.
Although the crash of the Wall Street reflecting the weakness of 
the rouble and the Japanese economic woes might have not have 
direct relevance to stock trading here, its negative impact on the 
GDR of PTCL and some others did affect the underlying sentiment.
'The negative impact of external bearish news was in part 
neutralized by the optimism created in the rings ahead of the prime 
minister's speech,' an analyst said.
The fall-out of the turmoil on the world financial and stock 
markets was, therefore, not that damaging as expectant investors 
kept to the sidelines rather than following the global trend, he 
But some others said, the market owes its relative strength to the 
perception that Muttahida ministers might take back their 
resignations as talks on their demand are already underway.
Investors, therefore, decided to keep to the sidelines rather than 
reacting to political developments just in a hurry and that saved 
the market from bigger fall, they added.
The KSE 100-share index showed a modest decline of 6.26 points at 
980.34 as compared to 986.60 a day earlier, reflecting the relative 
strength most of the base shares, barring the PTCL.
The market capitalization suffered a fresh setback of Rs 1.473bn at 
Rs283.762bn as compared to Rs.285.235 bn a day earlier.
Unlike previous weekend sessions, price movements were extremely 
narrow and reflected a status quo by both bears and bulls for no 
apparent pressing reasons, dealers said.
Big gainers were led by Clover Foods and Lever Brothers, which rose 
by one rupee to Rs 5.00, while losers were led by Al-Ghazi Tractors 
and Packages, falling by Rs 3 to 4.00.

Other prominent losers included, Bank Al-Habib, Prime Bank, Shell 
Pakistan BOC Pakistan, Reckitt and Colman, and CPC Rafhan Maize, 
which suffered decline ranging from one rupee to Rs 2.00.
The most active list was topped by PTCL, off 40 paisa at Rs 23.45 
on 48m shares followed by Hub-Power, up 15 paisa at 13.45 on 21m 
shares, ICI Pakistan, steady five paisa at Rs.12.00 on 1.141m 
shares, PSO,higher 45 paisa at 81.05 on0.320m shares and FFC-Jordan 
Fertiliser, unchanged at 13.50 on 0.288m shares.
Other actively traded shares were led by Unity Modaraba, unchanged 
on 0.200m shares followed by Fauji Fertiliser, up 20 paisa on 
0.179m shares, Bank of Punjab, higher 80 paisa on 0.161m shares, 
MCB, easy 10 paisa on 0.122m shares, Dhan Fibre, steady five paisa 
on 0.119m shares and KESC, firm five paisa on 0.110m shares.
DEFAULTING COMPANIES: Shares of three companies came in for trading 
and were actively traded under the lead of Fawad Textiles, 
finishing unchanged on 11,500 shares. Gammon Pakistan followed it, 
also static on 3,500 shares. The hereto inactive Haydary 
Construction also attracted stray support at the lower level and 
accounted for 500 shares. Most of the deals were reported at the 
previous level.

Back to the top
The myth-makers - II                        
Ardeshir Cowasjee
"WHAT else are you besides an industrialist and shipping magnet 
(sic.)? To me you shall always be Tipu Sultan, the great conqueror 
! Hope this card reaches you. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto." Written on a 
postcard posted in Paris on August 6, 1966, addressed to "Ardeshir 
Cowasjee, Industrialist and Shipping Magnet, Bath Island, Karachi." 
This was but one of the faces of ZAB, shown at his out-of-power 
We first met in 1951, introduced by our family lawyer Dingomal 
Narayansingh Ramchandani. 'Meet our latest entrant,' said Dingo, 
'Shahnawaz's son.' My father and I shook hands with a young affable 
man. We talked of generalities; my father wrote him off; I was 
impressed. When I next met him (Dingo having put him on one of our 
cases) he seriously declared his ambition to be foreign minister of 
He was helped by Iranian Nusrat Sabunchi, his second wife, to 
further his single-minded purpose via her countrywoman, Naheed 
Mirza, wife of Iskander Mirza, defence secretary, then interior 
minister, then, in 1955, governor-general of the Dominion of 
Pakistan, and in March 1956 the first president of the Republic of 
Pakistan. Zulfikar had the knack of climbing and worked himself 
into Mirza's good books,. He was given his first official 
assignment in March 1958, as leader of the Pakistan delegation to 
the Law of the Sea Conference at Geneva.
*From Geneva, he wrote to his patron a letter worthy of the most 
proficient of professional courtiers.
"Only a few lines to let you know that I am discharging my 
responsibilities here to the best of my ability ...... and I am 
sure you will be satisfied with the manner in which I have done my 
humble best to serve the interests of my country and my President.
"I would like to take this opportunity to reassure you of my 
imperishable and devoted loyalty to you. Exactly four months before 
the death of my late father, he had advised me to remain 
steadfastly loyal to you; as you were 'not an individual but an 
institution.' For the greater good of my own country, I feel that 
your services to Pakistan are indispensable. When the history of 
our country is written by objective historians, your name will be 
placed even before that of Mr Jinnah.....".
That summer, Iskander swore Zulfikar in as a minister of his 
cabinet. Bhutto assessed correctly where the real power lay and 
made overtures to the minister of defence, commander-in-chief of 
the army, General Mohammed Ayub Khan. In October, ambitious Ayub 
got rid of Iskander Mirza and took over the country. The 
'imperishable and devoted loyalty' perished in six months. Mirza 
was dead to Zulfikar from the day he was exiled.
He was made a minister in Ayub's cabinet. Skilfully shifting his 
'imperishable and devoted loyalty', Zulfikar flattered and charmed, 
so much so that Ayub was wont to refer to him as his fifth son. 
Ayub fulfilled his ambition and made him his foreign minister.
Many years after biting the second hand that had fed him, after 
bringing Ayub down, after being president of the country, and 
whilst the self-declared democratic prime minister of Pakistan, out 
of the blue in 1976, apropos of nothing, he sent a note to the 
chief of army staff, perhaps as a subtle encouragement or an even 
more subtle warning:
"I will tell you how Ayub Khan became a Field Marshal ...... I told 
him that since it was essential for him to be head and shoulders 
above the others, it would be better if he elevated his own rank 
from that of a General to that of a Field Marshal. He thought it to 
be a brilliant idea. He was simply overjoyed, but as all his 
reflexes were influenced by monetary considerations, much to my 
surprise he said 'The idea is brilliant, it will create stability 
but we will have to persuade Mr Shoaib, the Finance Minister, to 
agree to the financial aspects of the proposal. Of course Mr Shoaib 
agreed ...... I am therefore the hero of Ayub Khan's valorous 
battles. Of course, the object of this note is not to dismantle the 
man ...... I am only setting the record straight."
There are many firsts to Zulfikar's credit. He was the first man in 
history to throw away half of a country so as to be top-dog of the 
remaining half rather than leader of the opposition of the whole. 
He was the world's first civilian martial law administrator. He was 
the first prime minister in history to change the constitution of 
his own making within four hours of its promulgation. He was the 
first prime minister of this country who managed to jail many of 
his political opponents (and some of his friends so as to prove his 
power). He was the first prime minister of this country to have 
dissenters bodily thrown out of his Assembly. He was the first 
prime minister of Pakistan to nationalize industries, banks etc, 
knowing fully well that his government would simply rob and 
mismanage. His sole aim was to destroy the centres of influence, 
money being one vital centre, for he knew that the money which had 
supported his rise to power would vote against him in the next 
He was intolerant to the nth degree of any dissent, his intolerance 
growing by the day. His ministers feared him to the extent that 
they laughed with him when he made fun of them or insulted their 
wives. (He was also capable of publicly humiliating his own wife.) 
Those that did not fear him suffered physically, like Jalaluddin 
Abdur Rahim, the most senior minister of his cabinet, the man who 
helped him form his party and put it on the road. Merely because he 
had referred to Zulfikar, in his absence, as the Maharaja of 
Larkana, he was mercilessly beaten up to the point of 
hospitalization. (To curry favour, one of the slimy frightened ones 
had tattled.)
Zulfikar always privately confessed that the sole opposition he 
feared was the largest, the most powerful, the most disciplined, 
the most united party  the Pakistan army. So, he adopted the maxim 
that the only way to defeat a general of one's own is to take him 
to war and ensure that he loses. He put his maxim into practice in 
1965, took Ayub Khan to war, saw him humbled, and bided his while 
for him to step down.
Ayub's successor, General Agha Mohammad Yahya Khan, in his turn was 
egged on to fight the insurgents in East Pakistan, then to take on 
India. He lost also. When Zulfikar stepped into the shoes made 
ready for him, to protect himself, he put Yahya under house arrest.
Then came the turns of Lt-General Gul Hasan and Air Marshal Rahim 
Khan, the two officers Zulfikar employed to dislodge Yahya and 
bring him to power on December 20 1971. Keeping Gul to size, he was 
made chief of the army staff retaining his rank of Lt-General, 
while Zulfikar made himself the CMLA. In March 1972, he invited 
both men to the President's House, laughingly relieved them of 
their commands, had them ushered into a car with his 'Loin of 
Punjab,' Mustafa Khar, at the wheel, who drove them off at 
breakneck speed to Lahore where they were incarcerated and kept 
incommunicado in the governor's mansion. In May, both were exiled 
as ambassadors. (Zulfi's 'Loin of the Frontier', Hayat Sherpao, was 
later blown up by a bomb, a murder that remains unsolved to this 
Bearing in mind his fear of the army, he appointed the meek, mild, 
obsequious, self-effacing, unimpressive Corps Commander, Lt-General 
Zia-ul-Haq, sixth down the line, as his army chief, promoting him 
to general. With poetic justice, his Uriah Heep became his hangman.
Though he lived freely off the country until the day he died, two 
things went in Bhutto's favour. He himself did not dip his fingers 
into the national till, blatantly and with impunity. He did not rob 
the country dry. What money he made, he made discreetly. And, 

Zulfikar being the country's only 'sacred cow', his coterie could 
only make money without his knowledge.
Bhutto left more than enough wealth for his wife, daughters and 
sons to live abroad in grand style for ten long years, in London, 
Paris and on the French Riviera. He left enough for his two sons to 
run an international terrorist organization, to kill and to maim. 
He left enough for his heir and successor to stage a comeback. 
Generations of family wealth ? Documented in which tax or revenue 
return? Myth?

Voting with their feet                           
Irfan Husain
AS you read this, some Pakistani somewhere is trying to cross an 
international border illegally. Basically, he wants to be anywhere 
but in his native country.
It is a sad comment on the state of our nation that given the 
choice, most Pakistanis would prefer to be anywhere but here. While 
this is true for most developing countries, our citizens seem to 
have a determination to bail out that borders on desperation. 
Although many succeed in finding new homes, albeit illegally, there 
are thousands more in jails around the world, awaiting 
repatriation. Once home, they will no doubt try to escape again.
What drives these simple folk to hand over their life savings to 
unscrupulous agents who often strand their uneducated clients on 
the high sea or at remote spots where they suffer untold hardships? 
For most economic refugees, unemployment, lack of opportunities and 
grinding poverty supply the motivation. Then there is the 
persecution of our minorities that has driven many Ahmadis, 
Christians and Hindus abroad.
Young graduates, rebuffed time and again in the local job market, 
form long queues outside foreign missions in a bid to get a visa. 
Parents spend fortunes educating their children abroad so that they 
can stay on after graduation. Professionals, despite having good 
jobs in Pakistan, wait for years to get their coveted "green 
cards." Businessmen who can afford it have a second passport so 
that they can bail out when necessary.
And once a Pakistani acquires legal status, the process of 
sponsoring relatives begins. At airports around the world, rustic 
Pakistanis can be spotted waiting patiently for suspicious 
immigration officials to process their papers. According to a 
friend, a group of shalwar-kameez clad men were hanging around the 
transit lounge at JFK Airport in New York. He asked them what their 
destination was, and was told they had a logging contract to chop 
down a section of the rain forest in Brazil! While this story may 
well be apocryphal, it does demonstrate the go-anywhere, do-
anything attitude that typifies the average Pakistanis abroad. When 
the first Americans land on Mars, I have a sneaking suspicion that 
Pakistani workers will be waiting to start work on their base.

The perennial instability that now characterizes Pakistan is 
another factor fuelling this rush to emigrate legally or illegally. 
The mindless violence, the constant political tension and the sheer 
uncertainty force many Pakistanis to wonder about their children's 
prospects here. Given the bleak circumstances, those who can, look 
for other options. And those who can't, try and create alternatives 
by hook or by crook.
When I travel abroad, I am often irked by the close scrutiny my 
green passport is subjected to.But given the tendency of my 
countrymen to either claim asylum on the weirdest pretext, or go 
underground when and where they can, I don't blame immigration 
officials for being extra-careful when they see a Pakistani 
passport. Consular Officers in Pakistan, too, have heard all kinds 
of sob stories and now say no to even the most deserving case. But 
paradoxically, the most obvious "illegals" are given visas 
seemingly without any hassles. Clearly, there is some truth to the 
rumours of palms being greased in consular sections. Where there is 
a demand, there will always be a supply.
Apart from legal visas, there are all kinds of fake and counterfeit 
documents available. When I went to the airport to see my son off 
on an Amsterdam-bound flight recently, I was amazed to see Dutch 
embassy officials at the check-in counter to inspect visas. An 
airline employee told me that they routinely detect fake visas, but 
no legal action is taken against the passengers.
Once abroad, these Pakistanis often lead a miserable existence, 
irrespective of their legal status. Workers in the Gulf toil under 
sub-human conditions, their passports held by exploitative 
contractors. In European capitals, illegal emigrants from Pakistan 
can be seen shivering in the cold as they sell newspapers. And in 
America, they live six to a room while they eke out a living doing 
odd jobs, fearful of a raid by immigration officials.
These are the people who, over the years, have contributed so much 
to the Pakistani economy through their remittance dollars (and 
francs, marks and lire). They have scrounged and saved to send 
money to their families at home, and this has kept our moribund 
economy afloat. But now that Nawaz Sharif has frozen foreign 
currency accounts and decreed that remittances have to be converted 
at the artificially low rate of Rs 46 to the dollar, this vital 
source has dried up completely.
Overseas Pakistanis earn their money the hard way, irrespective of 
their legal status, and they are understandably reluctant to accept 
a loss of Rs 13 per dollar. As a businessman, surely Nawaz Sharif 
can understand the indisputable logic of these numbers. When he 
asks his countrymen abroad to make a sacrifice for Pakistan by 
remitting their money through normal banking channels at the 
official rate, he should set an example by bringing in his and his 
family's healthy dollar accounts back at Rs 46 per dollar. 
Meanwhile, he will have to excuse those who transfer funds through 
the hundi system at the market rate.

Irrespective of the millions of Pakistanis who work, study and live 
abroad, it is clear that almost all of them are where they are 
because of the conditions at home. Nobody wants to give up his 
milieu, his family and friends, and above all, his aloo-gosht for a 
life of uncertainty, discomfort and discrimination without good 
reason. Unfortunately, there is no dearth of reasons to leave 
But as the Great Pakistani Meltdown intensifies, the number of 
countries willing to open their doors to the victims and refugees 
dwindles. Already, the Gulf states have clamped down; Europe and 
America have greatly restricted the number of Pakistanis they are 
willing to accept; and even places like Panama and Guatemala turn 
up their noses at the dreaded green passport.
At the end of the day, the acceptability of a passport accurately 
reflects the economic and diplomatic strength of the issuing state. 
Until the late Sixties, our passport gained us entry to most 
countries without a problem. The fact that it now consigns us to 
endless queues and rejection is an indicator of how far we have 
fallen and where we now stand in the comity of nations.

What after 'strategic depth'?
Eqbal Ahmad
IN his letter to Zarb-i-Momin, the Taliban publication, Mr. Azam 
Tariq, leader of Pakistan's violently sectarian Sipah-i-Sahaba 
party, is ecstatic over his ideological brothers' recent victories. 
His ecstasy is shared by Pakistan's national security managers, but 
for non-ideological reasons. The attainment of 'strategic depth' 
has been a prime objective of Pakistan's Afghanistan policy since 
the days of General Ziaul Haq.
In recent years the Taliban replaced Gulbadin Hikmatyar as the 
instrument of its attainment. Their latest victories, specially 
their capture of Mazar-i-Sharif, the nerve centre of northern 
Afghanistan, brings the Pakistani quest close to fulfilment if, 
that is, in addition to residing in some military minds such a 
thing as 'strategic depth' does exist in the real world.
It does not. In military thought it is a non-concept unless one is 
referring to a hard-to-reach place where a defeated army might 
safely cocoon. Far from improving it, the Taliban's victory is 
likely to augment Pakistan's political and strategic predicament. 
The reasons are numerous, and compelling. Consider, for example, 
the following:
A fundamental requirement of national security is that a country 
enjoy good relations with its neighbours. If one is unfortunate 
enough to have a neighbour as an adversary, then its security 
interests are best served by maintaining excellent relations with 
the others around it. Pakistan has had the misfortune of being born 
in an adversarial relationship with India, a populous and resource 
filled country. This enmity shows no sign of abating, and is now 
augmented by the nuclear arms race and proxy warfare. The growth in 
provincial and ethnic discontents renders Pakistan specially 
vulnerable now to covert warfare. In this critical period the 
country needs friends in the region. The regional environment has 
been favourable to consolidating old friendships and forging new 
ones. Instead Islamabad is alienating both actual and potential 
Until recently, Pakistan has always had good relations with Iran 
and China. In this decade new states emerged in Central Asia 
augmenting the number of Pakistan's potential trading partners and 
strategic allies. Cold war's end also ended its hostility with 
Russia and held the promise of friendly regional alignment. 
Afghanistan was long an irritating but innocuous adversary with 
territorial claims on NWFP, Pakistan's largely Pashto speaking 
The Soviet intervention in Afghanistan and Pakistan's support of 
the anti-communist Mujahideen ended Islamabad's hostile relations 
with Kabul, and rendered its influence dominant over Afghanistan. 
Pakistan has misused this gain to its detriment. Its Afghanistan 
policy  the quest of a mirage mis-named 'strategic depth'  has 
deeply alienated trusty old allies while closing the door to new 
friendships. Its national security managers have in fact squandered 
historic opportunities and produced a new set of problems for 
Pakistan's security.
Teheran is openly hostile to Islamabad's support of the Taliban. 
"We had an agreement with Pakistan that the Afghan problem will not 
be resolved through war", said the judicious former President 
Hashemi Rafsanjani in his Friday khutba last week, "This has 
happened now and we simply cannot accept it." Thereafter hundreds 
of Iranians protested in front of the Pakistan embassy in Teheran 
against the "fanatical, mediaeval Taliban" who held eleven Iranian 
diplomats hostage and mercilessly bombed civilian quarters of 
Bamiyan, a predominantly Shi'a town. Iran's Foreign Minister, Kamal 
Kharazi, called Taliban's capture of Mazar-i-Sharif a "threat to 
the region". A resolution of the United Nations Security Council 
appeared to concur. Russia issued a warning. Tajikistan and 
Uzbekistan responded to Taliban advances by shoring up their 
Pakistan's foreign office responded with strongly worded 
declarations of innocence and neutrality in Afghanistan. Not one 
diplomat at the UN headquarters in New York regarded these claims 
as credible. This worldwide loss of credibility is hardly a foreign 
policy achievement. Also, denials are not a substitute for policy. 
The fact is that Iran, an important and traditionally friendly 
neighbour, is deeply alienated by what it regards as Pakistan's 
sponsorship of the Taliban. Russia, a major power, protests it. 
Recently independent states Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Kirghizia 
that had once looked up to Islamabad for help and guidance now 
regard it with apprehension. Pakistan appears today morally and 
politically isolated, a condition it shares with the Taliban who 
present to the world a most distorted and uniquely repugnant visage 
of Islam. It is not possible yet to surmise the consequences of 
this isolation, but it is certain that it will greatly augment the 
sense of insecurity that for five decades has haunted Pakistan and 
contributed much to its misery and militarization.
The costs of Islamabad's Afghan policy have been augmenting since 
1980 when Mohammed Ziaul Haq proudly declared Pakistan a "front 
line state" in the cold war. Those costs  already unbearable in 
proliferation of guns, heroin, and armed fanatics  are likely now 
to multiply in myriad ways. The Taliban will certainly be assisted 
by Islamabad to consolidate their precarious conquests. Successful 
or not, this will be an expensive undertaking, an expense we are 
ill-prepared to bear. Taliban victories have not put an end to 
their challengers; they are there and do not lack sponsors. The 
prospect is for protracted proxy warfare. It may cost some billions 
to keep the Taliban in saddle, assuming that we avoid being sucked 
into a larger war with Iran or Russia or both.
Afghanistan's reconstruction cost is conservatively estimated at 
some $40 billion. We cannot muster such amounts even for ourselves, 
so who will keep the Taliban in business? The strategic dreamers of 
Islamabad dream of dollar laden Saudi princes, Emirate Sheikhs, and 
American oil tycoons laying transnational pipelines from 
Turkmenistan to Karachi. They are veterans of false and deadly 
dreams such as the great Kashmiri uprising in support of Operation 
Gibraltar in 1965, or the powerful reinforcements which the 
American Seventh Fleet was bringing to Pakistan's army in East 
Pakistan, now Bangladesh.
Pakistan is being trapped again in risky illusions, and again the 
people not the decision makers will pay the price. Without the 
resources of a great power Pakistan has entered the game  both 
nuclear and non-nuclear  that great powers found difficult to 
sustain. So help us God!
The domestic costs of Pakistan's friendly proximity to the Taliban 
are incalculable and potentially catastrophic. Our embroilment , 
willy nilly, in the Ben Laden affair is a case in point. More 
importantly, the Taliban's is the most retrograde political 
movement in the history of Islam. The warlords who proscribe music 
and sports in Afghanistan, inflict harsh punishments upon men for 
trimming their beards, flog taxi drivers for carrying women 
passengers, prevent sick women from being treated by male 
physicians, banish girls from schools and women from the work place 
are not returning Afghanistan to its traditional Islamic way of 
life as the western media reports sanctimoniously.
They are devoid of the ethics, aesthetics, humanism, and Sufi 
sensibilities of traditional Muslims, including Afghans of 
yesteryear. To call them "mediaeval" as did the protesters in 
Teheran is to insult the age of Hafiz and Saadi, of Rabi'a Basri 
and Mansur al-Hallaj, of Amir Khusrau and Hazrat Nizamuddin. The 
Taliban are the expression of a modern disease, symptoms of a 
social cancer which shall destroy Muslim societies if its growth is 
not arrested and the disease is not eliminated. It is prone to 
spreading, and the Taliban will be the most deadly communicators of 
this cancer if they remain so organically linked to Pakistan. The 
Sipah-i-Sahaba leader's greetings to his Afghan co-believers is but 
one signal of the menace ahead.
Policy makers in Islamabad assume that a Taliban dominated 
government in Kabul will be permanently friendly towards Pakistan. 
The notion of 'strategic depth' is founded on this presumption. 
This too is an illusion. The chances are that if they remain in 
power, the Taliban shall turn on Pakistan, linking their brand of 
'Islamism' with a revived movement for Pakhtunistan. I have met 
some of them and found ethnic nationalism lurking just below their 
'Islamic' skin. It is silly to presume their debt to Pakistan as an 
impediment to their ambitions. Old loyalties rarely stand in the 
way of new temptations. Also, as the threat of local rivals 
recedes, their resentments against Pakistan's government shall 
rapidly augment as Islamabad will not be in a position to meet 
their expectations of aid. The convergence of ethnic nationalism 
and religion can mobilize people decisively. However inadvertently, 
Islamabad is setting the stage for the emergence in the next decade 
of a powerful Pakhtunistan movement.
There may still be time to help avert the disasters that are likely 
to accrue from the Taliban's domination of Afghanistan. Our 
interest lies in the establishment of a common peace there, one as 
welcome to Afghanistan's other neighbours as to us. Our future is 
best served if power in Afghanistan is pluralistically shared by 
its ethnic groups, for that alone can inhibit the pursuit of 
ethnically based territorial ambition. If we must live with a 
theocracy next door, it is better to live with an enlightened 
rather than a barbaric version of it. Also, if Afghanistan is to 
regain life, it needs a government hospitable to international aid; 
the Taliban are not.
It is unlikely that the architects of Islamabad's Afghanistan 
policy shall pay heed to arguments such as these. Dissenting points 
of view have always been ignored in Pakistan with tragic 
consequences. After hesitating for a while on the side of wisdom, 
Ayub Khan ignored them in 1965. We were relatively young and 
gullible then, so they lost a costly war and declared victory. In 
1971, Yahya Khan, Z.A. Bhutto and others dismissed the warnings of 
impending disaster as treachery, and lost half the country. Z.A. 
Bhutto rejected friendly early criticism of the failings of his 
government, suppressed the magazine in which they were published, 
and ruled on to be overthrown and executed by a usurper of his 
choice. He alone paid for his blunders personally; for those of the 
others only the land and the people continue to pay. Yet they do 
not hear and do not see even the obvious. No wonder they are 
looking for 'strategic depth'.

Miandad aims at making team a winning combination
Ilyas Beg
LAHORE, Aug 28: Senior cricket team coach Javed Miandad, a former 
Pakistan Test captain, said here today that his first mission was 
to guide the Pakistan team to an emphatic win against India in the 
Sahara Cup five-match cricket series commencing at Toronto, Canada, 
from Sept 12.
Addressing a press conference here at the Qadhafi Stadium, Miandad 
said: "We will not be overawed by strength of any team and will 
take the field without getting under pressure. Even the 
absence of any senior player will not psychologically affect the 
Pakistan team which will fight in every match, leading up to the 
seventh World Cup tournament in England next year."
Replying to questions, Miandad, who formally took over the charge 
of the camp here on Thursday, stated that he would fully utilise 
the powers vested in him. He had enough experience to "smell" foul-
play and he would not tolerate any incident of indiscipline.
"Any one guilty of indiscipline will be dealt with an iron-hand. 
Without being influenced by standing or stature of any 
errant player, I will ask him to pack up and go home," Miandad said 
in a firm voice.
Miandad said that he had been noting down shortcomings of the team 
and players. He said that he would try to remove them during 
training. He would work out a strategy for the Sahara Cup 
matches. He said that special attention will be given to technical 
"If fielding of the South African team is good, what is the harm in 
adopting their method of training?" he asked.
Miandad defended the appointment of an organiser and former first-
class cricketer Azhar Zaidi as a manager. He said that he had been 
a member of the teams which toured abroad in his managership 
and all the tours had been free of any controversy or bad incident.
While replying to a question about the non-availability of Test 
stars, Wasim Akram and Saqlain Mushtaq, for the Sahara Cup, Miandad 
said that he believed in ground realities and would like 
to make strategies keeping in view the strength of the opposition 
and that of our own side.
"I would like to see that the selected players give their best in 
the matches. I also will make them fight in every match. The junior 
players will be trained in such a way that after four or five 
years, others would follow them," said Miandad.
Miandad said that he was offered the coaching job by other 
countries but he preferred to take up the responsibility in his own 
country. He said that coaching in Brunei was his private affair and 
no one had much knowledge about that. He said that whatever had 
been printed by some newspapers was based on "conjectures".

No Pakistani on FIH list of upgraded umpires 
Walter Fernandez
KARACHI, Aug 24: The International Hockey Federation (FIH) Council 
at its last meeting upgraded a number of umpires.
The recommendations for upgrading were made by the FIH Umpiring 
It may be mentioned, that not a single Pakistani has found his name 
in the upgraded list.
The following umpires have been upgraded:
GRADE I: Gary Anderson (Zimbabwe), Antonio Bustos (Spain), Nicholas 
Lockhart (England), Rob ten Cate (Netherlands), Dawn Henning 
(England), Roberta Lanzalonga (Italy) and Heika Melina (Germany).
INTERNATIONALS: Bradley Hardy (Australia), Antonio Guadaninio 
(Italy), Tilkan Velappakutty (Singapore), Angela Edwards 
(Australia), Dawn De Foe (Singapore) and Michael Smart (Australia).
FIH SPECIAL RULES: Martin Milla (Kenya).
GRADE I: Daljit Singh (Malaysia), Erwin Hoemann (Chile), Matthias 
Messerli, Ismail Al-Ajmi Mustafa (Oman), Jose Luis Ramirez 
Guttierrez (Mexico), Kaur Anant (Malaysia) and Alicia Takeda Hirata 
RETIRED-INTERNATIONALS: Michael Soukup and Alam Wooley (England).
UMPIRING COMMITTEE: The major concern of the FIH President Juan 
Angel Calzado is the inclusion in the World Cup and Olympic Games 
list, umpires representing all countries.
At the same time, Mr. Calzado wants to see umpires of the same 
quality and uniformity to be in the panel, with the aim to enlarge 
the possibilities for appointments to world level competitions.
In addition, these umpires should also be able to improve the 
quality of hockey in their countries as well as their continents.
The Umpiring Committee is in the process of reviewing the fitness 
requirements for international umpires to take into account the 
demands created by the speed of the modern game.
Towards this end, an information booklet will be issued to all 
international umpires. Furthermore, it will provide guidance on 
training and fitness. It will also include notes on diet and mental 
The booklet will also include key points on the technical 
interpretations at the international level. All this is aimed at 
trying to ensure that the individual is well prepared to provide 
the players with an improved quality of umpiring.

Yousuf crowned champion after absolute thriller
Ian Fyfe
KARACHI, Aug 23: The former world amateur champion Mohammad Yousuf, 
fighting his way out of the brink of despair, added another feather 
to his cap when he was crowned the new Asian champion after beating 
Phirom Ritthiprasong from Thailand in an absolute thriller 8-7, at 
the 15th Red & White Asian Snooker Championship played on Sunday 
afternoon at the Magnolia Mahal, Beach Luxury Hotel.
Making his 11th appearance at the Asian championship, Yousuf, who 
reached the semi-finals on two previous occasions, finally added 
the Asian to his world title to become only the fourth Asian cueist 
after the three Thai players James Wattana, Sachi and Tai Prichet 
Chuchart to have the distinction of being crowned the world and 
Asian champion.
Cashing in on Ritthiprasong's unwanted errors, Yousuf got off to a 
marvellous start winning the opening frame 87/17. Backed up with a 
break of 32 he was soon 2-0 ahead after pocketing the second frame 
85/2 and with another fine break of 41, Yousuf raced to a 3-0 lead, 
picking up the third frame 3-0.
Recovering from his early setbacks, Ritthiprasong pulled one back 
by winning the fourth which was soon reduced to 2-3 after chalking 
up a break of 42 points.
Suddenly it was Yousuf now who was under pressure. The Thai 
continued to pile on the score. Now in arrears 49/9, Yousuf came 
back strongly with 33 points on the trot and now only needed to pot 
the black ball to carry the frame into a tie ball.
Going for the last black, Yousuf decided to play safe only to 
present his opponent the black, which he gleefully potted and won 
the frame 56/42.
Now 3-3 abreast, Ritthiprasong scoring 22 points in the vital 
seventh frame then snookered his opponent behind the green. Yousuf 
in trying to break the snooker gave away five vital points and was 
now indeed a worried man.
Yousuf also snookered the Thai behind the green. Undaunted with the 
situation, the soft spoken Thai leading in the frame 28/0 added a 
smooth break of 44 which pushed his total score along 68/19, then 
potting yellow, green and brown took over the lead for the very 
first time 4-3.
On the brink of despair, Yousuf who never says die, began the next 
frame with confidence and with the partisan crowd cheering him on 
Yousuf inched his way back into contention 5-6, with a break of 50 
being his principal visit to the table. Quite aware that his 
opponent was closing the gap, Ritthiprasong with two visits which 
realised 22 and 40 points respectively was soon happily placed 
62/1. With five reds and the six coloured balls to pot, Yousuf 
tried desperately hard to level the frame score 6-6 but soon he had 
to surrender the frame 24/76 with all the coloured balls to play 
With defeat staring him in the face trailing 5-7, Yousuf broke for 
the 13th frame. Fighting tooth and nail for survival, the Pakistan 
champion after scoring 10 points on his first visit to the table, 
followed it up with a handsome break of 63 which forced the Thai to 
surrender the frame.
The 14th game began with a series of safety shots. Leading 23/5, 
the Thai fouled on the pink which allowed Yousuf take over the 
running 44/32. Both cueists with nerves stretched to the limits 
missed easy shots. Potting yellow Yousuf was rather amused when 
Ritthiprasong sank the green and then brown to draw closer 43/47. 
But potting a difficult blue and pink, Yousuf drew level 7-7 as the 
spectators went absolutely mad with delight.
Yousuf broke for the final frame and both players relied on safety 
each waiting to pounce on the other's error. Grasping an 
opportunity with both hands Yousuf raced away with a break of 36 
points cheered on for every point scored. Ritthiprasong tried his 
level best to catch his opponent who was now playing at his best.
Finally The Thai No.2 threw in the towel with two reds and the 
coloured balls to play and a deafening roar went up with Yousuf 
emerging the final winner 8-7.

For Ali Ashgar Valika, the President of the Pakistan Billiard and 
Snooker Association (PBSA) not to mention the President of Asian 
Confederation of Billiard Sports (ACBS) it was indeed a happy 
moment. The man responsible for bringing Pakistan on the world 
snooker map saw his untiring efforts rewarded after such a short 
time not only had a world champion but also an Asian champion. He 
also received a healthy round of applause when Mohammad Yousuf 
hugged him after the match. 

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