------------------------------------------------------------------- Week Ending : 14 November 1996 Issue : 02/46 -------------------------------------------------------------------

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------------------------- Benazir had refused to quit: report Changes in economy must: US think-tank People invited to submit evidence against corrupt PPP voices fears about caretaker cabinet Some may be barred from contesting poll: Meraj Benazir sees Legharis hand in Mirs killing Benazir inherited cruel streak of her father Nawaz wants ID condition for voting Get rid of feudal lords in assemblies --------------------------------


IMF, WB pledge to help revamp economy: Burki PICIC, IDBP scare siphons off Rs 165m WBs magic man to revamp the economy Privatisation proceeds only for debt retirement Rate of inflation climbed to 11.03% last month: FBS Pakistan to get $160m IMF loan by next week Caretakers firm to bring tariff down to 35% soon KSE 100-share index breaks 1,500 points barrier ---------------------------------------


1,111 disastrous days Ardeshir Cowasjee Down the same dismal road Ayaz Amir New beginning or action replay? Dr Anis Alam -----------


Saeed Anwars century takes Pakistan into Sharjah final N.Z. lose to Pakistan but sneak into Sharjah final Pakistan face Dutch in opener as Madras is ready for hockey ties 6 Atlanta Olympians dropped from hockey list Foreign squash players start arriving China bag clutch of medals to win Asian Jr rowing



961112 ------------------------------------------------------------------- Benazir had refused to quit: report ------------------------------------------------------------------- Staff Correspondent WASHINGTON, Nov 11: President Farooq Leghari had urged ousted Benazir Bhutto to resign with dignity on Nov 4 but she adamantly refused, a London- based authoritative think-tank, Oxford Analytica, said in its latest analysis of the Pakistan situation. She adamantly refused, believing that he would not act against her. On this front, she appears to have underestimated the extent of national opposition to her government, the analysis said. It said although Mr Leghari was within his constitutional powers in dismissing Ms Bhutto, he could not have acted without the firm support of the army. Army Chief General Jahangir Karamat had privately expressed to both Leghari and Bhutto his displeasure over government behaviour. The caretaker government  led by Malik Meraj Khalid, and backed by Mr Leghari and the army  is likely to initiate major social and structural reforms, and seek to tackle corruption across the political spectrum, it said. The Bhutto governments lack of credibility and support could be judged by the fact that there were no protest demonstrations by the PPP against the presidents action. None of Ms Bhuttos former ministers was prepared to speak up in her defence after the sacking. Instead, many people openly celebrated her dismissal, notably in Lahore, the home city of opposition leader Nawaz Sharif, and Karachi, where the government has violently suppressed demands by local Mohajirs for political autonomy. Despite the presence of troops, the situation in Islamabad quickly returned to normal, it continued. The interim government can be expected to take action on three main policy fronts, it said. The government is likely to launch a major crackdown on corruption across the political spectrum, but in particular focusing on Zardari. The president and the army are already believed to have built up files on alleged abuses of power, and firm action is likely to be popular with the general public. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS 961111 ------------------------------------------------------------------- Changes in economy must: US think-tank ------------------------------------------------------------------- Staff Correspondent WASHINGTON, Nov 10: The key thing for the new interim government in Pakistan is to begin structural changes in the economy, restore law and order and hold corrupt people to account, an international think tank and aid-donor foundation chief said on Saturday. The reform agenda in Pakistan has to take a leap forward, George Perkovich, Director of the Secure World Programme at the W. Alton Jones Foundation, a $300 million grant-making organisation based in Charlottesville, said in an interview. The interview was published by leading newspaper Washington Times as part of a full-page review of South Asia in which Pakistan was the only subject for news analysis and reports. The papers Assistant Foreign Editor, Gus Constantine, said in a news analysis the ouster of Benazir Bhutto had returned power to its traditional holders, bureaucrats acting with the support of the army. He quoted an unnamed US source saying the politicians have created a mess with rampant corruption, economic stagnation, inflation and budget deficits. The source was understood to be an official one. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS 961111 ------------------------------------------------------------------- People invited to submit evidence against corrupt ------------------------------------------------------------------- Our Correspondent JHANG, Nov 10: Every citizen can submit, to the proposed accountability commission, evidence and proof against corrupt politicians, government officials and businessmen. The commission, to be a part of judiciary, will be set up shortly under a presidential order, says Syeda Abida Hussain, caretaker Federal Minister for Education, Science and Technology. Addressing a Press conference here at Shah Jewana House on Saturday evening, she said the accountability process would not delay the Feb 3 general elections. Abida said that former parliamentarians, if declared corrupt, would be debarred from contesting the elections. Those whose cases were decided after Feb 3, would be unseated if elected, she observed. She said that corrupt elements would not only face disqualification (from contesting elections) or dismissal (from service) but would also have to pay the looted money. Political and out-of-merit recruitment would be cancelled. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS 961108 ------------------------------------------------------------------- PPP voices fears about caretaker cabinet ------------------------------------------------------------------- Mahmood Zaman LAHORE, Nov 7: The central executive committee of the Pakistan Peoples Party has observed that certain steps taken by the caretaker government have endorsed its fears and made its credibility doubtful in the eyes of the people. The PPPs highest policy-making body, which met in Islamabad on Wednesday with secretary-general Rafiq Ahmad Sheikh in the chair, cited the constitution of the federal cabinet and appointment of Mumtaz Ali Bhutto as caretaker chief minister of Sindh as the evidence which substantiates our suspicion According to a party spokesman, two members of the cabinet are batch mates of the president in the civil services academy and one is related to him. This is nothing but clear nepotism by a person who claims to have an unblemished past. If the president has the courage to start with unfair practices only a day after he dissolved the National Assembly unlawfully, no-one is going to believe that his future steps will be above board, the spokesman says. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS 961108 ------------------------------------------------------------------- Some may be barred from contesting poll: Meraj ------------------------------------------------------------------- Staff Reporter LAHORE, Nov 7: Caretaker Prime Minister Malik Meraj Khalid has indicated that his government plans to bar some politicians from contesting the forthcoming polls by disqualifying them through an accountability law likely to be enacted in a few days. Well proceed according to the law. If anyone is disqualified under the law, he wont be allowed to contest the polls, he told newsmen during his first visit to the city here on Thursday after being sworn in as caretaker prime minister. Malik Khalid said the accountability law would be drafted in a few days. He said the accountability had actually started and his government was taking economic, administrative and other measures in this regard. He reassured the reporters that elections would be held on Feb 3 as promised by the president in the National Assembly dissolution order. He conceded that people were suspicious about the governments intentions to hold fresh polls. But, he said, it was due to the existing political polarisation and distrust. The caretaker prime minister arrived here in the afternoon by an ordinary PIA flight. He was accorded a bare minimum security and protocol. No pilot car or motorcycle was present to lead him to the Governors House and then to the Alhamra Arts Centre where he attended a function. The small flat owned by Malik Meraj Khalid in Laxmi Mansions (off Beadon Road) has been declared the Prime Ministers House, but only a uniformed constable and two plainclothesmen were guarding it. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS 961113 ------------------------------------------------------------------- Benazir sees Legharis hand in Mirs killing ------------------------------------------------------------------- Bureau Report ISLAMABAD, Nov 12: Former prime minister Benazir Bhutto on Tuesday implicated President Farooq Ahmed Khan Leghari in the murder of her brother, Mir Murtaza Bhutto, who was killed in a police shoot-out in Karachi on Sept 20. Ms Bhutto, who was talking to newsmen after moving into a house owned by Senator Gulzar from her official residence, said: There is a nexus between my brothers death and Leghari. She demanded of the President Leghari to bring back the British detectives called by her to investigate the killing of her estranged brother. I ask Leghari that if your hands are clean bring back those British detectives else nobody in this country is going to believe you,  she said. I always felt that my brothers death was part of a grand conspiracy against my government, she added. She said the day her brother was killed she told her colleagues that nobody could dare kill prime ministers brother unless somebody more powerful and more strong had assured the killers that she (Bhutto) would no longer remain in power. Ms Bhutto pointed out that she had set up a judicial commission to investigate the case but I was not satisfied. Therefore, she said, she had enlisted the services of the British investigating team comprising experts decorated by the Queen for solving some major international crimes. She said she wanted a foreign team to investigate the case because they would not have any roots in the country nor they would be pressured, coerced or intimidated. I wanted them to get to the bottom of the story, she said. Ms Bhutto, whose detained husband has been charged by the president in the proclamation order for conspiring to kill Murtaza Bhutto, accused Mr Leghari for the first time directly in the incident. The president has made some foul accusations. This convinces me that directly or indirectly there is a nexus between my brothers death and the president because he has tried to justify the presidential action in terms of my brothers death, she said. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS 961113 ------------------------------------------------------------------- Benazir inherited cruel streak of her father ------------------------------------------------------------------- Our Correspondent NEW YORK, Nov 12: The fall of Bhuttos is a family tragedy and a national one for Pakistan. The glorious legacy Zulfikar Ali Bhutto hoped to leave his children, tightly held for almost half a decade by his daughter, lies in ashes, says Stanley Wolpert. In an article in Tuesdays New York Times, the author of books on Quaid-i- Azam and Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, says: Few Pakistanis mourn the dismissal of Benazir Bhutto any more than they mourn the fate of her father. Wolpert who was commissioned by Ms Bhutto to write a biography of her father, says of Ms Bhutto: She staged a bloody crackdown on armed rivals who conducted a campaign against her in Karachi. She directed a campaign of harassment against judges and reporters. Meanwhile, her husband, Asif Ali Zardari, has been widely accused of enriching himself from government contracts. Lamenting Ms Bhuttos failed rule, he observes: It was a brief interlude of hope and pride, specially throughout the Sindh province, where cries of Jiye Bhutto greeted the prime minister. But that euphoria quickly ended, even among those who worked closely with her in the Pakistan Peoples Party. Instead of focusing on efforts to help develop the economy and trying to provide education and work for tens of millions of poor Pakistanis, Prime Minister Bhutto worried about how best to immortalise her father, planning costly monuments and hoping to persuade the world court to exonerate him. Wolpert concludes that Ms Bhutto inherited her fathers charisma, passion for politics and insatiable ambition, but also his cruel streak and willingness to undermine democratic institutions. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS 961114 ------------------------------------------------------------------- Nawaz wants ID condition for voting ------------------------------------------------------------------- Bureau Report ISLAMABAD, Nov 13: Leader of the Opposition Mian Nawaz Sharif held here on Wednesday a detailed meeting with caretaker prime minister Malik Meraj Khalid and demanded from him the reconstitution of Election Commission and the production of ID cards compulsory in the February 3 elections. While he stressed the need for producing National Identity Card for polling vote, he also called for the retention of October 1993 election constituencies to ensure fair and free elections in accordance with the constitutional requirements. The leader of the opposition also gave a letter to the caretaker prime minister in which he discussed nine proposals for having transparent elections throughout the country. The most important pre-requisite for free and fair elections was an independent election commission. As required under Article 218 of the Constitution, a new election commission should be re-constituted, as early as possible, he added. OVERSEAS PAKISTANIS: It is vital that millions of Pakistani voters living abroad should be given the right to vote. The Supreme Court had decided on 15 November, 1993 that voters registered in Pakistan and living abroad cannot be denied their right of vote and the government should make arrangements to enable them to vote at the next general elections. The chief election commissioner accordingly asked the ministry of law to amend the relevant laws to enable the Election Commission to appoint returning o officers in locations abroad with a large Pakistani population. On 8 November, 1994 it also asked the ministry of foreign affairs to study arrangements for this purpose. Just before the October 1993 elections, he said the PML had made certain proposals in its letter dated 15 September, 1993 to extend voting facilities to the overseas Pakistanis. This was followed by more detailed proposals in July 1994. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS 961114 ------------------------------------------------------------------- Get rid of feudal lords in assemblies ------------------------------------------------------------------- Staff Reporter LAHORE, Nov 13: Caretaker Prime Minister Malik Meraj Khalid said here on Wednesday that time had come to get rid of feudal lords who had no interest in peoples problems but had been occupying assembly seats generation after generation. Addressing a function arranged by a local traders group, Mr Meraj Khalid said although his governments term was limited to 90 days, it would devise strategies to streamline the much messed up political and economic matters and ensure that the next government followed the guidelines given. He said his government did not want to postpone elections fixed for Feb 3 next year on any pretext, but would introduce the accountability law at any cost. This law, he said, would cleanse the political arena of feudal lords who always managed to return to assemblies only to plunder public funds and grossly misuse their positions causing all sorts of problems for the society. It now depends on the nation to help the caretaker government in achieving the goal of providing clean governance to the country. February 3 is going to be a decisive day in our history. Hopefully, the people will give a bold verdict and reject parties which did not prove worthy of the voters trust, Mr Khalid said. ******************************************************************* DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS ******************************************************************* INTERNET PROFESSIONALS WANTED * MS in computer science, with two years experience, or, BE with four years experience in the installation and management of an ISP. * Must be able to select equipment, configure, and troubleshoot TCP/IP networks independently. Preference will be given to candidates with proven skills in the management of a large network and security systems. * We have immediate openings in Karachi, Lahore and Islamabad. * Competitive salary and benefits, and an exciting work environment await the successful candidates. send your resume to by e-mail : ak@xiber.com by fax : +92(21) 568-1544 by post : Dr. Altamash Kamal, CEO Xibercom Pvt. 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961111 ------------------------------------------------------------------- IMF, WB pledge to help revamp economy: Burki ------------------------------------------------------------------- Bureau Report ISLAMABAD, Nov 10: Adviser to the caretaker Prime Minister on Finance, Planning and Economic Affairs Shahid Javed Burki on Saturday announced his structural reforms programme to revamp the flagging economy and disclosed that the World Bank and the IMF would offer more resources to attain the objective. We are determined to devise a mechanism to stop slippages and corruption. While the IMF has promised to provide a new funding line other than the one already pledged, the World Bank too would be extending generous resources to help improve the countrys overall economy, he added. Speaking at a news conference immediately after taking the charge of the finance ministry, he pointed out that the job of the caretaker government was to revamp the economy by providing what he termed a solid base. President Leghari has assured me that the policies introduced by the caretaker government would continue beyond 90 days specially during his (Legharis) remaining two years in office. He said he planned to pick up the thread from where Mr Moeen Qurashi had left to bring about a qualitative change in the socio-economic scene and with a view to ensuring a sustained economic growth. Mr Burki pointed out that a number of task forces had been set up to recommend improvements in the following areas: Fiscal reforms, review of public expenditure and acceleration of the privatisation process. Its a fairly difficult task, but we would certainly try to achieve our objective of reforming the economy, he said. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS 961111 ------------------------------------------------------------------- PICIC, IDBP scare siphons off Rs 165m ------------------------------------------------------------------- Mohiuddin Aazim KARACHI, Nov 10: Two leading financial institutions witnessed a virtual panic run on Sunday resulting in withdrawal of Rs 165 million from their deposits following a statement of caretaker Advisor on Finance Mr Shahid Javed Burki. In his first press conference at Islamabad on Saturday, Mr Burki was quoted by official news agency APP as saying that the government plans to abolish and consolidate various financial institutions including the Pakistan Banking Council, Industrial Development Bank of Pakistan (IDBP), Pakistan Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation (PICIC) and Regional Development Finance Corporation. While IDBP reported withdrawal of Rs 95.0 million from its deposits, the PICIC lost Rs 70 million on Sunday, the first working day of the week, officials of the two institutions informed Dawn. There was a huge withdrawal of Rs 70 million from PICIC offices across the country today, a senior official of the corporation told Dawn adding the normal daily withdrawals range between Rs 5.0 million to Rs 10 million. We lost to our depositors Rs 95 million throughout Pakistan, said an IDBP official. He termed the withdrawal unusually high compared with normal withdrawals which he could not quantify. Both the officials said PICIC and IDBP brought the huge withdrawals to the notice of the ministry of finance relating the same to the newspaper reports about the possible winding up of PICIC and IDBP attributed to Mr Burki. The ministry responded quickly and issued a clarification  also carried by official news agency APP  saying the government had no plans to abolish PICIC and IDBP or any other financial institutions for that matter. But by the time the clarification was flashed by APP in the afternoon the damage was done. PICIC share value dropped to Rs 6.0 from Rs 9.0 recorded on last trading day depicting the confidence-shaking of the investors. Once something shakes the confidence of the investors it is very hard to rebuild it, remarked a senior PICIC official. He said out of the total Rs 70 million worth of withdrawals on Sunday Rs 16 million flew out from PICIC offices in Karachi alone. He said the panicky depositors made a run not only on current and saving accounts but also on term-deposit accounts. The run was so severe that it also wiped out the daily inflow of around Rs 5.0 million in our recently-announced term- deposit scheme with life insurance. He said the issuance of a clarification by the ministry of finance would probably halt further withdrawals from PICIC but it would not be of much help in securing back the lost deposits. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS 961109 ------------------------------------------------------------------- WBs magic man to revamp the economy ------------------------------------------------------------------- M. Ziauddin THE BAD news, despite the change of government is that the Rs. 41 billion package of the IMF-approved additional budgetary measures announced late last month would stay. But, the good news is, World Banks another miracle man Shahid Javed Burki is coming to Pakistan to set the countrys economic house in order within three months. Burki had actively helped the former caretaker prime minister Moin Qureshi during the latters three month tenure in August-October, 1993, but from behind the scene. He would now have an opportunity to begin from where he had left off. He would do well by losing little time in criticising the economic policies of the previous government and paying more attention to remedying the situation in the short time he has been allowed for the job. There is hardly anything which he does not know about Pakistans economy. And his experiences in the World Bank as the incharge, first at the China desk and then at the Latin American desk, should enable him to tackle the problems confronting the economy of his own country with greater dexterity and despatch. Burkis recent newspaper articles on Pakistans economy give a clue to his thinking on the subject. He surely must have some ready made prescriptions for the sickness from which our economy is afflicted with. To start with, there is this problem of abysmally low savings rate which has continued to keep the rate of investment even with borrowed resources at equally low levels of around 18- 19 per cent affecting adversely the rate of economic growth while the population has been galloping at the rate of 3.5 per cent. This problem is directly related to the problem of massive tax evasion in the country where out of a population of 120 million, only one million pay taxes. And this problem has two dimensions. One, the corrupt to the core personnel in the CBR. Second, our national culture of contacts and influence. It should not be difficult for the new finance minister to get the economic wing of the FIA to give him the real low-down on all the CBR field staff who live beyond their legitimate means. And using the existing rules he can send them all home. This will take care of more than half the problem. The other half, that is the problem of culture or contact would wither away in time on its own if bribes, contacts and influence fail over time to yield the desired results for the tax evaders. Moreover, not only the income tax rates in Pakistan are forbiddingly high, but the slabs are also too many making the whole exercise of filing income tax returns highly complex and cumbersome for the honest tax payers. It would make every Pakistani into an honest tax payer if all slabs are abolished and every one earning more than Rs. 60,000 a year (whatever be the source of income) is asked to pay 10 per cent of their income as income tax. Also, if all excise duties and existing sales tax are removed and a 5 to 10 per cent consumption tax( at every point of consumption ) is imposed in a graduated manner (affecting luxury consumptions the most and not affecting at all food items and such other essentials), not only the entire economy will get documented but the collection would be more than what one is getting from the existing indirect taxes. Simultaneously, the interim government could consider lowering the maximum import tariff rates to 35 per cent. This will bring down the cost of imported raw materials and intermediaries. All these steps will have a salutary effect on the overall rate of savings and investment , consequently pushing up the rate of economic growth to the desired levels. In the meanwhile, the interim government could consider speeding up the process of privatisation of the nationalised commercial banks and public sector investment banks. One commercial bank and one investment bank in the hands of the government should more than suffice. A banking sector largely in the private sector would ensure that bank defaults remain within reasonable limits and no advances are made on the basis of political influence or other non-economic factors. The menace of burgeoning budgetary deficit could also be tackled by the interim government first by dismantling all the unwanted divisions, ministries and departments ruthlessly, without being afflicted by the thought that the action would result in intensifying the problem of joblessness. More money in the hands of the private sector would finance increased economic activities creating more jobs which would eventually take care of those who will lose jobs by the reduction in the size of the government. Shahid Javed Burki like most of his technocrat colleagues is a great champion of the idea of making the agriculturists pay tax on their incomes. The ousted government had taken a decision in principle to impose the tax after having reached an agreement with the IMF. Now all that is required is to impose the tax which the interim government should shirk away from on the excuse of having no mandate to take such steps. While at it, Mr. Burki can also look into the logistics of collection of this tax without, on the one hand, letting the collectors harass the tax payers and, on the other, making it impossible for the agriculturists to evade their legitimate dues. This way, he can ensure collection of more than Rs. 2 billion, the previous government had estimated under this head. According to one calculation, if he goes about it in the right way, may succeed in ensuring collection of more than Rs. 20 billion in the first year. With more revenues in hand and less government to look after, enough financial space would be created for taking in hand well thought out socio- economic development projects having the right priority in the national scheme of things. However, in order to ensure that the annual borrowing limits are not breached by even a billion, it would be advisable to bring in a clear cut law making it punishable by demotion or dismissal if any project director comes back with an escalated financial re-evaluation of his project before the end of the year. The President in his address to the nation on Nov. 5 rightly said that only an elected government had the mandate to bring in far reaching changes in the economy and other sector of national life. But the points raised above have received bipartisan support from both the large parties from time to time. Both the Muslim League and the PPP whether they were in power or out of power have supported these ideas. Some of these points are also mentioned in their election manifestos. So, if the interim government takes some unilateral actions on these issues, they would actually be only helping out in advance the party which will win the next elections. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS 961109 ------------------------------------------------------------------- Privatisation proceeds only for debt retirement ------------------------------------------------------------------- Ihtasham ul Haque The caretaker government has started looking for new avenues to generate funds and all the five major public sector corporations were being asked to urgently clear their dues to ease the current acute treasury position. With the change in the government the World Bank and the IMF are said have called upon Pakistan to implement their agreement in letter and spirit to receive $360 million for Pakistan. This includes $160 million of the IMF and $200 million from the World Bank on account of Social Action Programme(SAP). It was in this context that new caretaker government headed by Malik Miraj Khalid has asked the officials of the five major corporations to clear their dues as was decided by dismissed PPP government. Regular instructions to the authorities of the major corporations were issued to clear their dues failing which strict action would be taken against them. A fresh move has been made for the recovery of government dues from various organisations so as to improve the liquidity position. The new government has pledged to live in its financial means and President Leghari has reportedly directed the new caretaker prime minister to ensure cut in non development expenditure. The previous government had even cut its development budget and funds worth Rs.20 billion are to be taken away by the government due to which many development projects are likely to face lot of problems. Even the Karachi Mass Transit System will now be delayed for one year. The Rs. 25 billion project would not get Rs.2 billion during the current financial year as the new government is also not in a position to arrange funds for this project. Major corporations which have been asked to clear their dues include OGDC, Pakistan Steel Mills (PSM) and State Cement Corporation of Pakistan (SCCP). To deal with this issue the previous government had first held a top level meeting presided over by ousted prime minister Benazir Bhutto. According to the minutes of that meeting, the following decisions were taken and reportedly being pursued by the caretaker government. WAPDA - Privatisation proceeds from Kot-Addu must be used for retirement of WAPDA debt. The State Bank will reverse the transfers of any such proceeds to federal government. However, no amount of proceeds will be used for payment of interest or any other revenue expenditure of WAPDA. WAPDA was to pay arrears of its liabilities in first four months by the end of October, 96. With a view to improving the financial position of WAPDA it was further decided that 10 per cent disinvestment of Kot Addu will be effected immediately at the original price of disinvestment. The proceeds from this would be used by WAPDA. WAPDA will ensure timely payment of its dues to the government and will re-examine its development budget with a view to facilitating payment of its obligations to the government. Low priority projects, wherever needed, will be cut down. PTCL must clear its dues to the Ministry of Finance as early as possible. Thereafter, all obligations will be paid as and when they fall due. Proceeds from securitisation of PTCLs receivables should be used to make payments for the arrears of principal and interest of foreign re-lent loans paid by the EAD on PTCs behalf. The State Cement Corporation - SCC will make payments to the government of all outstanding arrears on account of foreign cash development loans/debt servicing liability. The SCC will transfer to the government the balance of cement development surcharge, if any. The SCC will take immediate action to relieve itself of responsibility for running cement factories which have been sold but where disposal has been held up by stay orders. The OGDC would reconcile the position of its dues owed to the Ministry of Finance. The SNGPL must discharge its liabilities of OGDC immediately. If needed, SNGPL may review its development projects with a view to facilitating payment of dues to the OGDC. Regarding the Pakistan Steel Mills, a committee was to examine the financial position of the Mills. The PSM, however, was asked to pay all its dues to the government or Banks/DFIs. It is said that the caretaker government has particularly decided to look into cases of corruption and financial mismanagement of the PSM due to which things are deemed to have deteriorated. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS 961112 ------------------------------------------------------------------- Rate of inflation climed to 11.03% last month: FBS ------------------------------------------------------------------- Correspondent ISLAMABAD, Nov 11: The rate of inflation increased during October 1996 at 11.03 per cent as compared to the corresponding month of the last year, after having dropped below 10 per cent during the preceding two months, according to a Federal Bureau of Statistics press release. During August and September 1996, FBS had reported an increase of 9.54 and 9.83 per cent respectively over the corresponding months of 1995. The Consumer Price Index, which is considered a measure of inflation, for last month with 1990-91 as base stood at 184.17, showing an increase of 1.20% over the Index of September, 1996 when it was 181.99. All the Group Indices have registered an increasing trend, states the FBS. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS 961114 ------------------------------------------------------------------- Pakistan to get $160m IMF loan by next week ------------------------------------------------------------------- Bureau Report ISLAMABAD, Nov 13: Pakistan is expected to receive two tranches of $160 million ($80 million each), immediately from the IMF after the signing of an agreement on Standby Arrangements before the end of next week. An Extended Structural Adjustment Facility (ESAF) worth $1.5 billion is also expected to be finalised by about this time following which about $200 million would be released by the Fund under this arrangement. Informed sources told Dawn here on Thursday that the visiting head of the IMF delegation, Mr Paul Chabrier, held a long meeting here on Wednesday with caretaker prime ministers adviser on finance, Mr Shahid Javed Burki, and discussed with him details of both the agreements. There would be a special cabinet meeting on Thursday which would be apprised about the new funding arrangement with the IMF. The former Bhutto government had already negotiated a fresh agreement with the Fund for securing $160 million as part of two tranches of 600 million dollars Standby Arrangements. The third instalment of $80 million was due in December. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS 961114 ------------------------------------------------------------------- Caretakers firm to bring tariff down to 35% soon ------------------------------------------------------------------- Ihtashamul Haque ISLAMABAD, Nov 13 : The Task Force on Tariff reforms met here on Wednesday under the chairmanship of Minister for Commerce, Muhammad Zubair Khan and constituted 5 sub-committees to mainly propose bringing down tariffs to 35 per cent, as early as possible. The Task Force had been set up on the instructions of Prime Ministers Advisor on Finance, Planning and Economic Affairs, Mr Shahid Javed Burki. He is said to have assured the World bank and the IMF to rationalise Pakistans tariff structure specially bringing it down to 35 per cent. Although World Trade Organisation (WTO) has decided not to call for minimising the tariff rate to 35 per cent and given time to year 2003, the World Bank and the IMF are said to be exerting pressure on the caretakers to do the job within 90 days. They wanted to have the tariffs reduced to 35 per cent by the caretakers who should also set time-frame for its implementation which should be unchanged and the president Farooq Leghari who has two more years in power should guarantee its continued implementation. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS 961114 ------------------------------------------------------------------- KSE 100-share index breaks 1,500 points barrier ------------------------------------------------------------------- Staff Reporter KARACHI, Nov 13: Stocks maintained their recovery drive on Wednesday as blue chips rose further on heavy buying originating mainly from the institutional traders but the market lacked general support. The filing of petition against the dissolution of the National Assembly by the former prime minister Benazir Bhutto and the speaker seeking the Supreme Court verdict on the issue and restoration of the government evoked mixed reaction in the rings, although it certainly added to the uncertain future outlook, dealers said. However, the KSE 100-share index finished with an extended gain of 24.14 points at 1,506.72, breaking the 1,500 barrier, although the underlying sentiment remained highly volatile. After losing massively in pre-mid week trading, the index gained 32 points during the last two sessions and whether or not it maintains its recovery tempo at the weekend session too is anybodys guess. Opinions about the near-term direction of the market are, therefore, divided but there is a near-consensus among leading brokers that the index could hover around the current level, fluctuating either-way by about 50 points. Analysts said the current political uncertainty will continue to take its toll as investors might not like to hold long positions until the Supreme Court gives its final judgement on the two petitions. And added to it are uncertainties tied to the February 3 elections, notably their outcome and economic policies of the winning parties, they stated. So, there is not a single psychological depressant but a number of them, which will continue to haunt investors during the next three months. Floor brokers said the market could witness flutter here and there but the outlook will remain uncertain until the political situation is clear. That was perhaps why investors did not go beyond safe haven and indulged in alternate bouts of buying and selling in half a dozen sound shares. However, some of the bank, cement, energy and chemical shares came in for active support at the lower levels and have raised hopes that the sailing on these counters will be relatively smooth. Big gainers were, therefore, led by Askari Bank, Bank of Punjab, MCB, Cherat Cement, PSO, Sui Southern, ICI Pakistan and Fauji Fertiliser, which posted gains ranging from Rs 1.25 to Rs 2.75. Other good gainers were led by 11th, 12th and 16th ICP, Central Insurance, J. K. Spinning, ICC Textiles, Hinopak Motors and Pak Datacom, which also finished modestly higher on active short-covering at the lower levels. Losses on the other hand were mostly fractional and reflected lack of large selling barring PEL Appliances and Philips, which suffered steep decline ranging from Rs 14 to Rs 29 on news of lower sales owing to the imposition of sales tax. Dadabhoy Insurance, which showed good gains during the last two sessions, again came in for profit-selling and was marked down by Rs 10. Bannu Woollen, Javed Omer, Sapphire Fibre, Siemens Pakistan, BOC Pakistan and Engro Chemicals, which suffered fall ranging from rupee one to Rs 1.75, were among the other leading losers. Trading volume suffered a modest fall at 42.284 million shares as compared to 45.167 million shares a day earlier owing to the absence of leading sellers. Hub-Power again topped the list of most actives, up 75 paisa on 13.915 million shares, followed by PTC vouchers, up 55 paisa on 9.565 million, Dewan Salman, firm 65 paisa on 9.401 million, ICI Pakistan (r), steady 15 paisa on 3.425 million, and Dhan Fibre, higher 55 paisa on 1 million shares. Other actively traded shares were led by ICI Pakistan, up 65 paisa on 0.910m, Fauji Fertiliser, higher Rs 2.75 on 0550m, FFC-Jordan Fertiliser, firm 65 paisa on 0.450m, Pakland Cement, easy 25 paisa on 0.156m, MCB, up Rs 1.25 on 0.137m, Faysal Bank, higher 85 paisa on 0.136m, and Askari Bank, up Rs 1.15 on 0.110m shares. There were 287 actives, which came in for trading, out of which 101 shares rose, 118 fell with 68 holding on to the last levels. On the corporate front, the board of directors of Century Paper has declared cash dividend at the rate of 10 per cent plus bonus shares of an identical amount for the year ended June 30, 1996. The directors of Hilal Tanneries, Pakistan National Shipping Corporation and Shaffi Chemicals have omitted the dividend for the same period. ------------------------------------------------------------------- SUBSCRIBE TO HERALD TODAY ! ------------------------------------------------------------------- Every month the Herald captures the issues, the pace and the action, shaping events across Pakistan's lively, fast-moving current affairs spectrum. Subscribe to Herald and get the whole story. 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961108 ------------------------------------------------------------------- 1,111 disastrous days ------------------------------------------------------------------- By Ardeshir Cowasjee WHAT has Benazir left for us? An impoverished country, many more poor people, many more illiterates, and a damaged international reputation. What has she gained for herself and her family? Wealth robbed from the nation, a very ill and heart-broken mother, a murdered brother, a brother- in-law accused of murder, a defamed husband. Benazir and her PPP stalwarts say they will fight back. Of course they will. They never had it so good. The fight, they say, will be for democracy. Are they democrats? Their fight will be for the reacquisition of power and pelf. As for Ghinwa Bhutto, placed as she now so unfortunately is, I asked her what it is she wants for herself and her children. A mature young woman, for her 34 years of life, she wants her husbands murderers found and punished, and she wishes to secure for her children the legacy that is theirs by birth. A difficult agenda, but she has her priorities right. What support has she from Mirs family? None, apart from that of her mother-in-law, she admitted  and Nusrat, very ill, has become extremely forgetful. She wishes to live in her home at 70 Clifton with Ghinwa and her children, but is not allowed to by her daughter. After Mirs death and her return from abroad, Nusrat came to Ghinwa one evening saying she would like to stay with her. She stayed the night, and the next morning before the household awoke Benazir arrived with muscle woman Rukhsana Bangash and whisked Nusrat away. Ghinwa was told that that Nusrat had gone on Umra. But she had no idea that day where she was at the moment. I asked if there had been any rapprochement meetings before Murtazas murder regarding the settlement of any political or property disputes between brother and sister. The sister had sent her messenger, to inform Mir that, to start with, he would have to part with half the library built up by Zulfikar and housed in 70 Clifton (about which ZAB himself used to boast that most of the books had been acquired with other peoples money) and half of his gun and carpet collection (most of which were gifted). Mir had felt highly affronted and the messenger was shown the door. Why are you not represented before the inquiry tribunal headed by Justice Nasir Aslam Zahid that is determining the circumstances of Mirs death, I asked. She did not agree with the limited terms of reference under which the tribunal was inquiring, and which stipulated that its report, when finalised, would be handed over to the home department of the Government of Sindh  in other words, to Home Minister Abdullah Shah. This meant, at the time we met, that it would never be made public. She would agree to be represented with the terms of reference expanded and with the proviso that the report be submitted to either the President or the Chief Justice of Pakistan for publication. And, with finality, she said that she was restrained by people and circumstances which she felt too embarrassed to discuss. I explained that Chief Justice Sajjad Ali Shah had ordered that the tribunal be headed by one of his most fair and fearless judges, with whom sits Justice Dr Ghous Mohammed and Justice Amanullah Abbasi about whom only good is said. She could not hope for a better panel. These judges would not necessarily feel restricted in any way in their ascertaining of facts. Her representation at the tribunal can only help her cause. As for her personal restraints, with the dismissal and fall of Benazir and her government, these should largely lessen. I hope Ghinwa will now arrange to be represented before the tribunal, inform them of what she knows and feels, and exhibit to the judges the recording of the last Press conference held by Mir four hours before he died. Tumandar Leghari must be praised for finding the gumption to do what he has done. Had he only done it six months earlier, we would have been better off. After the seventh day of the dissolution, he must stop talking about elections in three months. First there has to be accountability, and maximum recovery of what we have lost. Then, a census, which has not been held for 16 years. The engine of democracy can only be run by democrats, people who feel for the people. A constitution is made for the good (only the good) of the people. It cannot be read or interpreted otherwise. It cannot and should not be used to facilitate the designs of robbers. Malik Mehraj Khalid, a good reasonable man of 80 years, prone to doing right, wore at his swearing-in what he has always worn rather than the costume innovated for the ushers at the court of Emperor Akbar. We are happy that Lt.-General Sahibzada Yaqub Khan is our foreign minister and not our COAS. He understands the Great Game and is also attuned to the Americans. Should the forces of evil attack us, the Seventh Fleet will have anchored by the time our fuel and spares run out. Shahid Javed Burki knows his finance and is held in high esteem in the capital of the world. Mohtarma Syeda Abida Hussain and Omar Afridi are good choices. Shahid Hamid has good portfolios  Defence and Establishment. He should be able to maintain a working relationship and liase with the fountainhead. The rest will have to prove themselves. Fakhruddin has constantly and forcefully criticised Article 58(2)B under which he has now benefited and sworn an oath. Accountability in his hands will falter. Who will he side with while giving his opinion when Benazir goes to court seeking the restoration of her government? What sort of advice can he give the President? The President must undoubtedly know that contrary to the advice of Finance Minister Babar Ali, Moeen had installed M.B. Abbasi as head of the NDFC. Moeen should come back and count how much Abbasi has made us lose. The National Bank of Pakistan, which he now heads, once a very prestigious bank and the only Pakistani bank whose letters of credit were accepted abroad, has been downgraded by Moodys to an E+ rating. As this goes to Press, Governor Kamaluddin Azfar is still in the Governors House. Azfar has throughout his term in office aligned himself with Syed Abdullah Shah, his chief minister, and been a party to, among other things, the horrifying case of Feroza Begum and her son. He cannot approbate or reprobate. Send him home, Mr President. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS 961111 ------------------------------------------------------------------- Down the same dismal road ------------------------------------------------------------------- Ayaz Amir HOW many times have we been down this road before and yet how amazing that we learn nothing from the journey. Politicians no sooner in office than they begin to tempt the fates and Presidents, after using Article 58(2)b of the constitution, stuck repeatedly between the need to appear impartial and the more overriding need to justify their deed. For any caretaker arrangement to have credibility it must be seen as neutral. It must not take sides no matter what the provocation or how corrupt and inglorious the government which it has just shown the door. Yet no sooner does a President dismiss a government than he has to submit himself to two necessities: first, to prove and justify his action and, second, to ensure that the dismissed government does not return to power. This virtually pushes him into a partisan corner, the more so because the dismissed entity usually loses no time in making him  that is, the President  its foremost target. This is what happened in 1990 when Benazir Bhutto was dismissed by Ghulam Ishaq Khan and this is what is happening again now that Benazir has received her dismissal orders for the second time in her tumultuous career at the hands of her one-time lieutenant and confidant, Sardar Farooq Leghari. The caretaker set-up now in place is not as blatantly partisan as the team Ishaq chose in 1990. But for all that it has a distinct anti-PPP flavour. Consider some examples. The caretaker chief minister of Sindh, Mumtaz Bhutto, who makes Jam Sadiq Ali look like a soft cake, is no apostle of neutrality. Much the same can be said of Zafarullah Jamali in Balochistan who, even if not overtly anti- PPP, is a politician with his own axe to grind. The former PPP men taken into the federal cabinet (Shafqat Mehmood and Javed Jabbar) are disgruntled souls. Even Malik Meraj Khalid, who for all his unassuming manner is no ones fool, has had his differences with the former prime minister. More questionable than this anti-PPP bias  which Benazir can be expected to put to good use when she again plays the martyr, a role which she has honed to perfection  has been the stance of the army. No explanation has been forthcoming as to why army detachments had to be used to seal off the Prime Ministers house on the morning of the governments dismissal. No one will deny the armys key role in national affairs but why must it be so obtrusive about its actions? The caretaker set-up has also not been able to give a satisfactory explanation for Asif Zardaris detention. If there are criminal charges against him, by all means arrest him. But if there is no evidence on this count (which is not the same thing as saying that he is innocent), he should be allowed to walk a free man. Husband and wife may have presided over the most corrupt dispensation in Pakistans history  the circumstantial evidence in this regard being mind-boggling  but that is no excuse for denying them due process under the law. Indeed, what the caretaker government is proving is that a week is a long time in politics. It has been unable to explain its priorities or remove the growing confusion in the public mind about whether circumstances can arise in which accountability takes precedence over elections. And it has not been able to give a satisfactory explanation for Benazirs dismissal. The presidential order dissolving the National Assembly is a masterpiece of clumsy drafting, while the Presidents address on radio and television was a public relations disaster. Even if a murder takes place in broad daylight it still has to be proved in court. The evil of Ms Bhuttos tale has not been adequately presented before the people of Pakistan. The presidential proclamation rests heavily on three reasons for the governments dismissal: the violation of human rights in Karachi, the killing of Murtaza Bhutto and the hurdles raised by the government in the way of implementing the Supreme Courts verdict in the Judges Case. Examined closely, these reasons appear to be less than convincing. Of course human rights violations have occurred in Karachi but, if there be any honesty in the matter, when they did happen they evoked little outrage on the part of the army or the presidency. Leghari and Benazir fell out for different reasons but certainly not over the situation in Karachi. In fact, if Benazir Bhutto can be credited with any single achievement it is for having crushed the MQMs mini-insurgency, something which the army itself found hard to do. In the zeal to make a damning enough case against Benazir Bhutto, it would be a pity if the clock was turned back in Karachi. Certainly the MQM should be brought in from the cold and certainly police excesses should be checked and investigated, but care should be exercised that in doing so the MQM is not allowed to resurrect its former reign of terror. In any case, proving the PPP leaderships direct involvement in the extra-judicial killings in Karachi, while certainly possible, will not be easy. As for the hearings into Murtaza Bhuttos killing, no one knows what may happen tomorrow but with the DIG and SSP comprehensively contradicting each other, no vital link with Zardari, as the authorities might have hoped for, has so far emerged. Unless it does, it becomes a problem slapping criminal charges on him. This leaves the verdict in the Judges Case. But the proclamation itself only avers that the government dilly-dallied in implementing it. Reprehensible though such procrastination may be, it hardly furnishes enough grounds for dismissing an elected government. This does not mean that there were no grounds at all for dismissing what arguably was the most disastrous government in the countrys history. But it does mean that the President has not really succeeded in making out a convincing case for his action. Nor is this just an academic point because unless the President gives a more Churchillian performance, and unless the caretaker set-up is shorn of its anti-PPP bias, the danger will remain of a section of the electorate denouncing the results of the coming elections. There are not many more cycles of protest and upheaval that Pakistan can afford. It is, however, one of the in-built contradictions of the Eighth Amendment that true neutrality in a caretaker set-up can never be guaranteed unless the axe-wielder too steps down after chopping the head of his victim. Something close to this happened in the latter half of 1993 when both Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif and President Ishaq agreed to step down together. Despite the reservations that Nawaz Sharif later came to entertain about the caretaker administration headed by Moeen Qureshi (a man who for all his other qualities was obsessed by the need for self- publicity) that was by and large a neutral government and it conducted a fair election. The challenge before Leghari is similar  to create a level playing field for everyone  but a challenge that will not be met easily with the Mumtaz Bhuttos and the Jamalis in the caretaker field. Another thing to remember is that if Moeen Qureshis caretaker administration is supposed to have given a good account of itself, one reason for this was the simplicity of the baggage it carried. The aim before it was to hold clean elections, take urgently-needed measures to shore up the economy and, if possible, to address the problem of corruption in a general sort of way. It could concentrate on these tasks because it was neither driven by political prejudices nor distracted by the mirage of accountability. President Legharis case is altogether different. He is not only expected to oversee the holding of clean elections. An articulate lobby is also expecting him to clean up the national stables by initiating a process of accountability. It is here that we come up against the second great contradiction in Article 58(2)b. Its use is justified only if the country is threatened with disorder or a government has been guilty of great evil. But once used in this manner, it arouses expectations of correction: that not only will the evil be lanced but the temple itself will be cleansed. But three months  the constitutional deadline for holding elections  is not time enough for cleaning the temples of Babylon. These are competing imperatives which simply sow doubt and confusion in the public mind. If this is what is happening at the moment, it is scarcely being helped by the inarticulate noises coming from the presidency or from the pale shadows doing yeoman service in the caretaker government. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS 961112 ------------------------------------------------------------------- New beginning or action replay? ------------------------------------------------------------------- Dr Anis Alam THE President has been pleased to dismiss the Benazir Bhutto- led PDF government, accusing it of rampant corruption and misgovernment. His action is a repeat of the then president Ghulam Ishaq Khans charges first against Benazir Bhutto in 1990 and against Nawaz Sharif in 1993. In the eight years since parliamentary democracy was restored, three elected governments have been dismissed on charges of corruption and misgovernment. Both major parties, the PPP and the Muslim League, have been indicted. Innumerable cases of corruption against major functionaries of these governments are pending in courts. With the latest dismissal new names will be added to those accused of corruption and misuse of power. What is, however, not clear is whether those accused of corruption and misgovernance will ever be made to pay for their deeds. In the last eight years, no-one has ever been convicted of the crimes that he has been charged with. One could rightly ask, what is new this time? What is sad, however, is the fact that every time an elected government is dismissed, some people rejoice. PML(N) leaders and supporters celebrated the dismissal of the Benazir government. PPP leaders and their supporters were overjoyed at the dismissal of the earlier government of the PML(N). Political opponents are hated with such vehemence that leaders are willing to destroy the very political system essential for their own political survival, in their desire to destroy their political opponents. This intolerance has now spread throughout Pakistani society, exacerbating sectarian, ethnic, tribal and denominational tensions. The Presidents action has again demonstrated the fragility of the parliamentary democratic system in Pakistan. The extreme polarisation created during the long era of Zia-ul-Haq persists even today. The parties are unwilling to tolerate each other. There is a constant tussle to dethrone the party in power. This situation has enabled groups of the unprincipled elected representatives to blackmail every government in power. They change loyalties for personal favours in the shape of cash, plots, lucrative contracts, licences, loans and positions for their favourites. Since 1985 these parliamentarians, emerging under the non- party system, have played havoc with the democratic set up and debased it in the eyes of the common people. Massive horse- trading takes place any time a government faces a vote of confidence. Parliamentarians are taken to Changa Manga, Saidu Sharif, Peshawar, Islamabad, etc., to isolate them from rival bidders. It is necessary that before election are held electoral reforms are enacted to debar people with such records in public office. It is amazing to note that very little, if any, legislation has been discussed and enacted in the assemblies during the eight years since restoration of the parliamentary system. Universally criticised constitutional amendments and ordinances like the Eighth Amendment and the Hudood Ordinance enacted by a military dictator have not been removed because of lack of agreement among the main political parties. Most of the time governments have relied on the non-parliamentary practice of presidential ordinances that are hardly ever discussed in the assemblies and enacted again and again. The main function of the assemblies is to legislate and discuss government policies and actions to ensure that they are legitimate and in the national interest. The assemblies have not functioned as they ought to have. It is obvious that democracy in Pakistan has been reduced to election of parliamentarians. Once elected, a majority of them, especially those on the government side, tend to behave in the most dictatorial manner. They flout the laws of the land and demand, and usually get, privileges not due to them. They tend to use their position to enrich their kith and kin and themselves. Both parties are weak on organisation. They have been organised from top downwards. There is no internal democracy in either of them. The PPP is Benazir, the PML is Mian Nawaz Sharif, the PML(J) is Hamid Nasir Chatta, the JUI is Maulana Fazlur Rahman or Maulana Samiullah, the JUP is Maulana Noorani or Maulana Abdul Sattar Niazi. These leaders nominate functionaries at the lower levels. At no time does the ordinary worker get a chance to elect his/her leader. The leaders are chosen for them by the supreme political leader. This keeps the political parties organisationally weak. Only at the time of agitation or election is the party machinery activated. At other times it lies dormant and dysfunctional. This is as true of the PPP as of this PML. If democracy has to take roots in Pakistan, political parties with well-defined programmes have to be organised from the grassroot level upwards. Every government, whether representative or otherwise, only works for the benefit of its chosen group, be they industrialists, businessmen, trade groups, transporters, landowners, property developers, contractors or large landowners. Every government has favourites of its own. It is only the pressure of organised groups that forces governments to provide services to that group. In developing countries the political parties are usually weak. The only organised groups are the armed forces, propertied classes, industrialists and traders (chamber of commerce and industry), feudals, professionals and labour in large-scale industry. Working people, peasants, labourers, petty shopkeepers and peddlers are not organised. Hence their interest hardly ever gets prominence in the policies of the governments. Governments the world over are now committed to development. Every government, whether democratically elected or otherwise, and every politician of some consequence, talks of eradicating poverty, disease, unemployment and ushering in an era of justice, peace and prosperity. It was not always like this. It is the present century which has demonstrated that with judicious and planned use of science and technology in the production processes, every country can be rich and prosperous. In the present century, one country after the other has risen from the ranks of a poor, backward agrarian society to become a prosperous industrial nation. Japan, China, Korea, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Brazil, Mexico, Greece, Italy, Spain and Portugal are just a few of the examples. The World Bank Development Report for the year 1996 listed 51 countries as being low-income. These countries had a total population in excess of three billion and their average per capita gross national product (GNP) in 1994 was put $380. In Pakistan the per capita GNP in 1994 was put at $430. However, a few of the low-income countries are also making giant strides along the road to prosperity. These are the so-called new tiger economies of Thailand, Indonesia, the Philippines and Malaysia which have left the ranks of poor economies to join the ranks of middle and upper middle-income economies. China, a country of nearly 1,200 million people, has managed to increase the per capita GNP by a whooping rate of 7.8 per cent during the decade of 1985-94. In Pakistan, however, this rate of growth was just 1.2 per cent. Even India managed a rate of 2.9, more than twice that of Pakistan. these countries have developed their human resources by investing heavily in education, health, and infrastructure and are now reaping the benefits in terms of very high growth rates. Pakistan remains one of the poorest among the poor countries. Our record in providing social services like education, health, safe water, immunisation, shelter, transport and communication is especially bad. Over two-thirds of the population are illiterate. Sixty per cent of the girls and forty per cent of the boys of primary school-going age remain without schools, nearly 80 per cent of boys and girls do not finish secondary school. Less than three per cent of the young reach post- school educational institutions. About 65 per cent of the population does not have access to safe drinking water, 70 per cent have no sanitation. The public transport system is either non-existent or has deteriorated over the years. In the villages hardly any social services exist. Most of the utilities like water, gas electricity and sanitation provided by the state are monopolised by the upper and middle- income groups. Most governments have not been responsive to the needs of the common people. Dismissal of civilian governments has been frequent in Pakistans political history. These dismissals have been done some times by military dictators as in 1958, 1977 and 1988 but also by civilian heads of state as in 1990 and 1993 and now in Nov. 1996. Every time these governments were accused of corruption and misgovernance. Why are civilian governments in Pakistan regularly dismissed, usually by authorities not directly elected by the people? To understand this, a little digression is needed. One has to understand the nature of state and its institutions in post-colonial countries like Pakistan. A major source of tension is the fact that the state in post- colonial countries is not the creation of the indigenous social groups, the landowners, the merchants and the industrialists. It is a legacy of the colonial times. It was created by the colonial authority for the safeguarding and promotion of colonial interests. As colonialism is forced to retreat by movements for independence, the state with its institutions is inherited by the party leading the movement. Unless the movement was very strong with deep roots among the various social classes and people, the civil and military bureaucracy, instead of being subservient to the government, assumes an independent role. Making use of the subservient character of the landowners and merchant class during the colonial era, it starts to dominate and manipulate politicians coming from land-owning families. Older, well-established nations evolved during a long time, during which dominant social groups created institutions to safeguard and promote their interests. The civil and military bureaucracy running state institutions is subservient to these groups. In countries like Pakistan the civil and military bureaucracy, instead of being subservient to the people, tries to lord it over them. Democracy does not suit them. hence attempts to bypass democratic rights and democratic rule. Elected governments are dismissed, giving way to direct or indirect rule by military. Most post-colonial countries have thus been ruled by the military for long periods of time. In the absence of democracy and democratic institutions, brutal repression of less privileged nationalities, regions and smaller ethnic and religious group takes place. In the year 1988, 68 countries were being ruled by military. Violent conflicts often erupt. People want a revolution which would bring peace and prosperity and restore their dignity as human beings, irrespective of their, cast, creed, colour. Post-colonial countries will, therefore, continue to be hotbeds of discontent till such time as they are able to provide justice, equity, dignity, and prosperity to all of their citizens. The present tension and state of uncertainty in Pakistan have to be seen in the light of what has been discussed above. The only road that leads to a bright future and a place for us among civilised nations is the road of democracy. All political parties, social groups and interest groups should organise themselves for the defence of universally accepted human rights, rule of law, democratic values and democratic institutions. Pakistan is beset with innumerable problems basically related to its underdevelopment. Our people are as industrious and ingenious as any in the world, our land as varied and rich as anywhere. But lack of vision and leadership from politicians allowed the civil and military, bureaucracies to assume a leadership role right from the early years of Pakistans independence. Their arbitrary, authoritarian rule has pushed Pakistan among the most underdeveloped of the nations of the world. Their attempts at nation building from the top have not only led to the dismemberment of the country but also to trebling the number of illiterates and the rise of ignorance, bigotry, sectarian and ethnic conflicts, inter-regional illiterates and the rise of ignorance, bigotry sectarian and ethnic conflicts, inter-regional and inter-provincial imbalances. General Yahya Khans attempts at legitimacy led to the introduction of the so-called ideology of Pakistan by his fellow General, Sher Ali khan. Instead of cementing the people of Pakistan as one nation it led to civil war in the eastern wing and its eventual separation from Pakistan. General Zia-ul-Haqs search for legitimacy resulted in his policy of Islamisation that brought ethnic and sectarian conflicts to a pitch never witnessed before. Pakistanis stand more divided today than ever before. There are several well organised armed religious groups that openly declare their hatred of representative democracy. A start can still be made to put the affairs of Pakistan on the right track. Let there be a national consensus on the following points: 1. Pakistan is for all the people of Pakistan. All Pakistanis, irrespective of race, colour, religion, sect, ethnicity, language and gender are equal citizens before law, all enjoying the same fundamental rights as enshrined in the United Nations Charter. 2. The development of Pakistan can only be possible through the development of its manpower potential. A massive programme for short as well as long- term development in this respect should be launched. 3. The prosperity of the people and the country is possible only through the fullest development of the agriculture and industrial potential with maximum possible safeguards for the environment. 4. Pakistan is a developing country. It can develop only by drawing on the experiences of other countries that have become developed in the last 200 years  France, Germany, the US, Japan, Korea and China among them. It is futile to try to chart any so-called Pakistani or Islamic course. 5. Pakistan is a poor country facing enormous problems; a galloping population growth, alarming concentration of wealth among a small minority leading to rising differences in well being among various sections of the population, and inter and intra-regional disparities. All this has raised the genie of obscurantism, sectarianism and ethnicity. 6. A realistic assessment of Pakistans position in the world ought to be made. Foreign policy adventures like that in Afghanistan ought to be shunned. Adventures in neighbouring regions as advocated by the likes of Qazi Hussain Ahmed should be firmly resisted. Undivided national attention should be paid to our own problems and their solutions. Where brute force does not yield any solutions, wise diplomacy works wonders. Let us try to negotiate with India to reduce mutual security concerns and embark on a mutual reduction of arms and armies. We just cannot afford to spend all the government revenue income on defence, law and order and debt servicing, leaving the people without any social welfare services. After all, people must have something for whose defence they could be exhorted to sacrifice. In view of the fact that successive governments in Pakistan have spent insignificant percentages of revenue income on health education, social welfare of the people, it is no wonder that the average citizen sees government and its institutions only as oppressors and not as protectors. Politicians should come to an agreement among themselves to change this perception.


961113 ------------------------------------------------------------------- Saeed Anwars century takes Pakistan into Sharjah final ------------------------------------------------------------------- Viren Verma SHARJAH, Nov 12: Pakistan, well known to make a mess of things, are equally an exciting side to watch when in full flow. On Tuesday, with their openers finally finding their usual delicate touch, they ruthlessly bruised the ego and pride of world champions, Sri Lanka, with a convincing eight-wicket victory in the Champions Trophy cricket tournament here. With this glorious victory. Pakistan became the first team to book a place in the final. A surprisingly subdued Sri Lanka, who have rounded off their league engagements with three points from four matches, now await the outcome of tomorrows Pakistan versus New Zealand match. If New Zealand, who also have three points, win, its all and over for the Sri Lankans. But if they dont the run-rate will come into play, which is slightly tilted in favour of Sri Lanka. On Tuesday Pakistan were simply impeccable in every department of the game. They bowled well, fielded excellently and batted with grace and conviction. Saeed Anwar, who had scored an unbeaten 104 in Pakistans last match against New Zealand on Sunday, picked up from where he had left off. Striking the ball with authority, Anwar blasted a grand 112, again unbeaten, to post his second century in the tournament and 11th of his career, spanning 112 matches. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS 961114 ------------------------------------------------------------------- N.Z. lose to Pakistan but sneak into Sharjah final\ ------------------------------------------------------------------- Viren Varma SHARJAH, Nov 13: How intriguing and ambiguous can interpretations of cricket rules be? One got a bitter taste of it during the last league match of the Singer Champions Trophy cricket tournament today. The match between Pakistan and New Zealand, for a change, took the back stage and it all boiled down to which team - New Zealand or Sri Lanka - would qualify for the final...and how. Whether the net run-rate or the aggregate outcome of matches between the two teams in question - a new addition to the mind-blowing wordings of cricket rules - would decide the fate of the second finalist. New Zealand finally sneaked into the final after a day-long drama and confusion over Rule 11.1. they will take on Pakistan, who topped the group by beating New Zealand by four wickets today with six points from our matches. If New Zealand had won their last match there would have been no confusion, no problems, but their loss, threw open a debate over the standard playing conditions. With this defeat, New Zealand finished with three points from our matches, exactly the same as that of Sri Lanka. Since New Zealand had beaten Sri Lanka in a league match and tied the second, they earned the right to make it to the final despite an inferior net rates. The confusion arose over the interpretation of Rule 11.1. Tournament referee Mike Smith, former England captain, contacted David Richards, the ICC Chief Executive, to seek his opinion. And it was decided during lunch time that the run-rate would come into play. But the New Zealand team management was not satisfied. They contacted their board, who, in turn, sought further clarification from ICC. Richards then spoke to Ali Bacher of the South African Cricket Board, the architect of the rule, and the two finally decided that since New Zealand had performed better in the league stages against Sri Lanka, they would go through to the final. The objective is to see which team performed better than the other, Richards said in a Press statement. Unfortunately, the wording of the rule is ambiguous, as it refers to ... the winner of all of preliminary matches played between them... That, taken literally, could mean that the winner would be the winner of each and every match. Equally, the word `of can be taken to mean originating from (Oxford English Dictionary.), the statement said. I have spoken to the South African cricket board and they have advised that the wording is the aggregate outcome of all matches played between the two teams. The exact workings of Rule 11.1 are: In the event of the teams finishing on equal points, the right to play in the final match or series will be decided by the most wins in the preliminary matches or, when teams have both equal wins and equal points, the team which was the winner of all of the preliminary match (as) (played between them) will be placed in the higher position or, if still equal, the higher net run rate in the preliminary matches. The Sri Lankan management later took things in the right spirit though Dhammika Ranatunga, Chief Executive of Sri Lankan Board, said the rule needs a bit of `tightening up. The highlight of the match a superb six-wicket haul by Man-of-the-Match Waqar Younis and a 115-run stand between Adam Parore and Lee Germon which equalled the world record for the seventh wicket between Jeff Dujon (57 not out) and Malcolm Marshall (66) posted against Pakistan in Gujranwala on Nov 4, 1986. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS 961113 ------------------------------------------------------------------- Pakistan face Dutch in opener as Madras is ready for hockey ties ------------------------------------------------------------------- Walter Fernandez KARACHI 12: Pakistan face off the Netherlands in the opener of the 18th Mens Champions Trophy World Hockey Tournament scheduled to be held at Madras (India) from Dec. 7 to 15. Preparations continue in right earnest for the Champions Trophy Tournament organisation has been under the watchful eye of the International Hockey Federation (FIH), both from Brussels and in person. FIH Technical Manager Adrien Peters visited Madras in September to assess the tournaments progress on all counts. Based on Mr. Peters report, the FIH affirmed the continuing organisation and approved the final match schedule, while still expressing concern about inadequacy of certain facilities. As the floodlighting will not be in place for the tournament, it was agreed that all matches would be played in daylight. The tournament also marks the beginning of the FIHs official working relationship with API Television, the FIHs television distribution representatives. The London based company was awarded exclusive TV rights for a four-year period to a package of the FIH Tournaments, which they in turn sell and distribute. The Champions Trophy is the first event covered under the contract. In one deal already negotiated, API TV have sold satellite rights for Asia and the Indian Sub-continent to ESPN Asia. Within India, host broadcaster Doordarshan will be broadcasting all of the tournaments 18 matches live on national network as well as providing the feed for international distribution. And on another television note, following its successful implementation during the Atlanta Olympic Games, the FIH is once again asking teams to adhere to a policy of `no white below knees during the Champions Trophy. This policy makes it easier for viewers, particularly those watching television, to follow the white ball. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS 961114 ------------------------------------------------------------------- 6 Atlanta Olympians dropped from hockey list ------------------------------------------------------------------- Ilyas Beg LAHORE, Nov 13: Out of the 17 members of the Pakistan hockey team who were in Atlanta, former captain Shahbaz Ahmad Senior, forwards Tahir Zaman and Anis, full-backs Naveed Alam and Rana Mujahid and goalkeeper Khalid Mahmood have not been included in the 34 probables picked for the National hockey camp which gets under way in Karachi from Friday evening. The players will report that day and training will begin on Saturday morning which will continue till the final selection of the 16-member Pakistan team for the Champions Trophy to be held at Madras from December 7 to 15. The team is expected to be finalised by the end of this month. The former Olympian Jahangir Butt has been appointed coach and Safdar Abbas as Assistant coach of the team. Announcing the names of the trainees after the two-day trials at the National Hockey Stadium and a meeting also attended by the PHF president Muhammad Nawaz Tiwana, secretary Col Mudassar Asghar and manager-designate Khawaja Tariq Aziz, besides the selection committee members, chief selector Mir Zafarullah Jamali told a crowded Press conference that the effort to re-structure Pakistan hockey has been started. He said that the injured Olympian Tahir Zaman and international winger Ijaz Ahmad might be included in the camp as soon as they fully recover. Following are the 34 probables: Goalkeepers: Mansoor Ahmad, Qasim, Ijaz Khokhar, Ashfaq Hussain. Right-full-backs: Danish Kaleem, Aamir, Ziauddin. Left-full-backs: Ali Raza, Tariq Imran, Aamir Wakil. Right-halves: Muhammad Usman, Irfan Yousaf, Moazzam Saeed. Centre-halves: Muhammad Khalid, Irfan mahood, Imran Yousaf. Left-halves: Shafqat Malik, Wasim, Waheed Shahid. Right-wingers: Haider Hussain, Atif Rana, Muhammad Ali. Right-inners: Muhammad Sarwar, Rahim Khan, Atif Bashir. Centre-forwards: Kamran Ashraf, Ijaz Rasool, Najam Qazi. Left-inners: Shahbaz Junior, Anis, Aleem Raza. Left-wingers: Anis Ahmad, Babar Abdullah, Babar Hussain. # The chief selector clarified that only those players have been considered who appeared in the trials. He said that some promising boys have been seen during the trials, who will get chances to be included in the future national camps after the Champions Trophy. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS 961114 ------------------------------------------------------------------- Foreign squash players start arriving ------------------------------------------------------------------- Sports Reporter KARACHI, Nov 14: Seven foreign players, three from England and one each from Australia, South Africa, Sweden and Canada, arrived in the city today for the two-day World Open squash qualifying round, scheduled from Nov 15 at the PIA Jahangir Khan Squash Complex. Tournament Director Hasan Musa said today the draws for the 32-man qualifying round , from which eight qualifiers would go into the main round of the 20th World Open, will be taken out on Friday at the venue of the tournament. The PSA has already sent the names of the 24 participants for qualifying round on the basis of their lower rankings and among them are Mir Zaman Gul (No 28) and Kumail Mahmood, (No 63) the rest belong to other countries. Pakistan Sohail Qaiser (world no 72) who did not compete in the Sindh Open stands a fair chance to be in the World Cup qualifying round in case any listed foreign player does not come for the qualifier, said Hasan Musa. The World Open, carrying big cash prize of US dollars 130,000 is scheduled to commence from Nov 17 at the DHA Squash Complex. Mr Hasan Musa further stated three foreign international referees plus local referees and markers will supervise the World Open matches. The list is finalised and the names will be announced in a day or two, said the Tournament Director. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS 961111 ------------------------------------------------------------------- China bag clutch of medals to win Asian Jr rowing ------------------------------------------------------------------- Farhana Ayaz ISLAMABAD, Nov 10: China extended its dominance at the 4th Asian Junior Rowing Championships by claiming a bulk of six gold medals, three each in mens and womens events, and one silver out of the eight finals here at the conclusion of the four-day regatta contested at Rawal Lake, Saturday. Japan snatched two gold, a silver and a bronze, Korea secured three silver and two bronze medals, hosts Pakistan clinched three silver medals all in the mens category while Taiwan took a haul of four bronze. Uzbekistan also finished within the medal tally owing to its coxless pair crew which wrapped up third place. The Minister for Education, Science and Technology, Syeda Abida Hussain, was the chief guest at the closing ceremony. Before distributing medals to the athletes she extended a special welcome to the participants from the great Asian nations and highly appreciated the number of women competitors in the event. Mumtaz Ali, President Pakistan Rowing Federation (PRF) admired the working to his team which made possible the harmonious manner in which the regatta was held. China missed out on entering the final contest against all the eight gold medals at stake during the event, when its single sculler Gudlian Qin was not allowed to compete in the pre-finals on Saturday after he failed to provide his permanent ID card as an evidence about the age. Manager of the Chinese team Chen Chunxin, said member of Chinese Qins date of birth could not be checked although he claimed that the rower was under-18 years of age. I called back to reconfirm his age but since the boy lives several kilometres away from Beijing in the countryside it was not possible to provide the ID card before the finals here, Mr Chen said.

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