------------------------------------------------------------------- Week Ending : 10 October 1996 Issue : 02/41 -------------------------------------------------------------------

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Only five per cent politicians corrupt The bandit who was a constable World Bank lists Pakistan among corrupt countries Author was denied $15m, claims Shaikh Cut in defence budget ruled out Pakistan to continue its N-policy, says Leghari Pakistan turned into police state, says PBC China sold nuclear furnace to Pakistan: US paper Britain, US also responsible: PM ---------------------------------


KSE opens on Friday after 19 years KSE reverts to Friday as holiday Peace in Afghanistan to open a vital trade route Moody's poor rating to increase cost of borrowing Private foreign investment in Pakistan Modaraba committee to conclude findings Petroleum prices raised again USDA predicts 9.53m bales of cotton output Black money now 50% of GDP SPI shows increase of 0.16% Leading scrips tend further lower ---------------------------------------


Democracy is a dirty word Ardeshir Cowasjee What price Taliban victory? Mazdak Who is conspiring against whom? Ayaz Amir Pakistan and global disarmament Benazir Bhutto -----------


Cricket in Kenya Needed: a clear-cut selection policy Points to ponder for sports policy S. Africa lift cricket cup with 7-wkt win over Pakistan Afridi made three records, not two Zimbabwean team arrive, hopeful of giving fight Essex show interest in Saeed Anwar



=================================================================== 961007 ------------------------------------------------------------------- Only five per cent politicians corrupt ------------------------------------------------------------------- Our Correspondent SUKKUR, Oct 6: Federal Education Minister Syed Khurshid Ahmed Shah has said that talks were going on with the opposition to work toward a unanimous bill on corruption in the light of the Presidents message and further added that progress was expected soon. He said Rs. 91 billion had been plundered, and the politicians were being blamed for this massive looting of public money. He claimed that only five per cent politicians were involved in corruption. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS 961006 ------------------------------------------------------------------- The bandit who was a constable ------------------------------------------------------------------- Staff Reporter KARACHI, Oct 5: A robber turned out to be a constable after he was shot and wounded when attempting to rob an assistant sub- inspector of police on Saturday in Saddar police station limits. Initial police reports said as Arif Osman, ASI of Bahadurabad police station, was in his car in mufti, near Masjid Romi roundabout on Sharea Faisal, waiting for the traffic green signal, a young motorcyclist pointed a gun at him and asked him to hand over whatever money he had on him. Osman pulled out his gun and fired at the bandit. The motorcyclist was injured after bullets hit him in the chest and in a leg. He was taken to JPMC where he was identified from his ID card as constable Aijaz Ahmed, posted in Gizri police station. He died in the hospital later on. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS 961005 ------------------------------------------------------------------- World Bank lists Pakistan among corrupt countries ------------------------------------------------------------------- By Our Staff Correspondent WASHINGTON, Oct 4: The World Bank has listed Pakistan among the three most corrupt borrowing countries and has ordered surprise raids by special squads to audit projects funded by the Bank in these countries. "Pakistan has recently been added to the list which consisted of Kenya and Poland and Bank President James Wolfensohn has hired the independent Swiss accounting firm Societe Generale de Surveillance (SGS) to carry out the audit raids," Bank officials said. The new audit squads will hit countries comprising a World Bank portfolio of at least one billion dollars, and 20 on-going projects in these three countries have been targeted, including the Hub power project in Pakistan. Mr Wolfensohn, who called on Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto at New York on Thursday after the cancellation of his visit to Pakistan during his forthcoming South Asian tour, ordered creation of special squads after he learned that "billions of dollars were being lost through corruption and negligent or non-existent supervision of projects". The Bank decision to put Pakistan on the hit list came after Transparency International, the Berlin-based firm, recently rated Pakistan as the second most corrupt country in the world after Nigeria. The World Bank is said to have taken special note of the rating. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS 961004 ------------------------------------------------------------------- Author was denied $15m, claims Shaikh ------------------------------------------------------------------- Our Correspondent NEW YORK, Oct 3: A Wall Street Journal op-ed piece, which makes a strong case against any foreign investment, including funding by the International Monetary Fund, World Bank, and aid packages to Pakistan, was described as being "infantile, vindictive and without any credibility" by Foreign Secretary Najmuddin Shaikh. At a Press briefing on Wednesday night, Mr. Shaikh observed that the article, written on the eve of the most delicate talks with the International Monetary Fund, was due to a "pique" that the writer, Mr. Mansoor Ijaz, had against Pakistan government since he could not "derive sufficient benefit" from projects he had given which were rejected by the government. Meanwhile, a spokesman for the Pakistan Embassy in Washington told "Dawn" on Wednesday night that Mr Ijaz, who is chairman of the New York-based Crescent Investment Management, is vilifying and damaging Pakistan, because the embassy denied him 15 million dollars he had demanded to deliver votes in the United States House of Representatives for the passage of the Brown Amendment. The spokesman said that in 1995, after the Brown Amendment had made it through the US senate and then had to be voted on by the House, Mr. Ijaz came to the embassy along with his lawyers with a proposal which smacked of a "sting operation". Elaborating on Mr Ijaz's proposal, the spokesman said "Mr Ijaz wanted us to release fifteen million dollars for a satellite communications company R.D.D.A. which had done some work for Pakistan in 1979 for which they were not paid and they would sue the government to recover the monies". "Ijaz told us that in this way you will kill two birds with one stone, one we will ensure votes in the US House for the Brown Amendment and the other the company R.D.D.A. will not sue you", the spokesman added. The spokesman said that when Ambassador Maleeha Lodhi was given this proposal she saw it as a trap wherein Pakistan Government could land in bigger trouble; so she turned down Mr Mansoor Ijaz's proposal saying that "it was illegal". In the Wall Street Journal article, Mr Ijaz has implied that Ambassador Lodhi used "aggressive tactics" in pushing for F-16 monies after the passage of the Brown Amendment because her brother, Amir Lodhi, was interested in the Mirage deal with France as he was the middleman as alleged in the article. Describing the article by Mr Ijaz as being 'outrageous and malicious against Pakistan's Ambassador to the United States, and saying "this is a total travesty of facts", the Pakistan Embassy in a Press release pointed out "Pakistan's publicly enunciated policy on the embargoed military equipment has been the consistent demand for the release of this equipment or the full reimbursement of the money paid". "It was the US Administration which took a decision in July 1995 to back legislation authorising the release of the military equipment except the F- 16s, for which the Administration pledged to return the money. This was not Pakistan's decision but that of the US Administration and Congress", the Press release said. "Insinuations to the contrary make the preposterous assumption that Pakistan's Ambassador was in a position not only to determine the policy of the US Administration but also the decision of the US Congress on the F-16 issue". As regards Mr Ijaz, it was pointed out that he had been pushing Pakistan government to recognise Israel and he has himself visited Israel on several occasions, once on the invitation of Jerusalem's Mayor. Last year, Mr. Ijaz was given an award by a major Jewish organisation as being the "Humanitarian of the year" for establishing clinics and schools in Belgium and parts of Eastern Europe for the Jewish communities there. Ambassador Ahmad Kamal, who attended the award ceremony, praised Mr Ijaz and his "philanthropist activities". Then in his speech Mr Ijaz thanked Ambassador Kamal's wife saying "thank you Mrs Kamal for Dal, Roti and Kabab". When the Foreign Secretary was told about the incident he said, "We all make mistakes". DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS 961010 ------------------------------------------------------------------- Cut in defence budget ruled out ------------------------------------------------------------------- M. Ziauddin ISLAMABAD, Oct 9: A special cabinet meeting will be held here on Thursday to consider a four-point proposal concerning the proposed IMF package of reforms. The four points are: cuts in current expenditure; review and reform of general sales tax; imposition of agricultural tax; and bank reform. The government is seriously considering accepting all the new conditionalities of the IMF, except the one concerning reduction in defence budget. However, a gradual and creeping reduction in the countrys military budget, to the tune of 30 per cent, starting from the next year, is not being ruled out. In their discussions with the government, the defence authorities are said to have pointed out that while they understood the financial predicament in which the country was finding itself currently, they felt it would not be advisable to touch the defence budget at this juncture to bail out the economy. They, however, are to said to have extended full support to the government in its efforts to increase revenues by taxing the incomes from agriculture. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS 961010 ------------------------------------------------------------------- Pakistan to continue its N-policy, says Leghari ------------------------------------------------------------------- Shamim-ur-Rahman KARACHI, Oct 9: President Farooq Ahmed Khan Leghari said here on Wednesday that Pakistan was against the production of nuclear weapons but cannot neglect the nuclear option which, by and large, provides an effective answer to many of its needs. Addressing the silver jubilee celebrations of the 137mw Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP)  the only in Pakistan and the Muslim world  the president declared in unequivocal terms that Pakistan would continue with its right to acquire and excel in nuclear technology for peaceful purposes. It was unfortunate that Pakistan was being hindered by some powers in acquiring this technology even for peaceful purposes, and pressure was being exerted to disband the nuclear programme, the president said. Referring to Pakistans positive approach to nuclear non- proliferation and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, President Leghari said that CTBT should be applicable to all, an implied reference to Indias refusal to sign the treaty or the General Assemblys resolution in this regard. Emphasising that an energy-resource deficient country in terms of fossil fuel reserves, Pakistan needs to make large-scale use of nuclear power to meet its future energy requirements. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS 961007 ------------------------------------------------------------------- Pakistan turned into police state, says PBC ------------------------------------------------------------------- Bureau Report ISLAMABAD, Oct 6: The Pakistan Bar Council, apex body of legal practitioners, has expressed deep concern over killings by intelligence agencies and the police. In a resolution passed at its meeting here on Thursday but released on Sunday , the council said: Fake police encounters have become a rule of the day. The PBC said that by giving a free hand to the police and agencies, the federal government had made Pakistan a police state. The PBC noted that gross violations of human rights and fundamental rights were taking place and these cases should be brought to the notice of the Supreme Court for an immediate remedial action under article 184(3) of the constitution. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS 961010 ------------------------------------------------------------------- China sold nuclear furnace to Pakistan, says US newspaper ------------------------------------------------------------------- Shaheen Sehbai WASHINGTON, Oct 9: China has once again sold a nuclear-related equipment to Pakistan, this time a special skull-shaped industrial dual-use furnace, in violation of a pledge to the US, the Washington Times said on Wednesday quoting a top secret CIA memorandum. A banner headlined first lead story written by the papers defence correspondent Bill Gertz said the State Department had sent a diplomatic note to Beijing protesting the latest sale of the furnace and some high- tech diagnostic equipment with military applications. The CIA memo reportedly said this time the sale had been approved by the Chinese leadership and Chinese technicians were already in Pakistan preparing to install the furnace which was delivered early in September. The paper said the State Department spokesman Nick Burns and senior CIA officials had declined to comment on the story but a Pakistan Embassy spokesman had denied that his country received any illegal shipment of nuclear technology from China. A Chinese embassy spokesman called the report groundless and irresponsible. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS 961005 ------------------------------------------------------------------- Britain, US also responsible: PM ------------------------------------------------------------------- By Athar Ali LONDON, Oct 4: Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto has said that if Afghanistan can now be unified it would be a welcome development for the whole world as it would have a government to deal with. She was answering questions for a British television news programme, following the capture of Kabul by the Taliban. Ms Bhutto added that the unification of Afghanistan would be a welcome development because the country was a gateway to Central Asia, and unless there was peace in Afghanistan Central Asian republics could never be truly independent. Those who also took part in the programme were former Pakistan army chief of staff Gen. Aslam Beg , and the former Pakistan foreign secretary, Shaharyar M. Khan. The risks to which the Taliban victory exposed Pakistan were emphasised by Mr Khan who said that their fanatical attitude towards Islam might well have an impact on Pakistan . He pointed to the sway of opinion, especially of the people in the north, who believed in such an attitude. He said it was now for the moderate and the centrist Pakistanis to stand up and say whether they want this kind of Islam. Gen Beg confirmed Pakistan's links with the Taliban and said their bases were in Pakistan because all their madrasas were there. However, Ms Bhutto denied that Pakistan alone had a hand in the creation of this new force which had now taken over Kabul, for which Islamabad was being held responsible. She said Britain, the United States, Saudi Arabia and Pakistan, during the Jihad, had set up Taliban schools and made them self-financing. They all must share the blame if the Taliban did something, she added. ******************************************************************* DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS ******************************************************************* INTERNET PROFESSIONALS WANTED * MS in computer science, with two years experience, or, BE with four years experience in the installation and management of an ISP. * Must be able to select equipment, configure, and troubleshoot TCP/IP networks independently. 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961004 ------------------------------------------------------------------- KSE opens on Friday after 19 years ------------------------------------------------------------------- Staff Reporter KARACHI, Oct 3: After about two decades, the Karachi Stock Exchange will resume trading on Friday and analysts said the investors' optimism suggested that the welcome could be spontaneous in the maiden session. The board of directors of the Lahore and Islamabad stock exchanges have also decided to observe Sunday as closed holiday and will open on Fridays from Oct 4. However, the other major local markets including the cotton, commodity and bullion markets will continue to close business on Fridays at least for the next couple of weeks but are expected to follow the lead provided by the KSE. The first Friday trading session on Oct 4 at the KSE could be eventful as investors are inclined to make it an outstanding success apparently in a bid to seek the central bank's approval for opening of the bank branches, a floor broker said adding "funds have been lined up to give the short session trading a respectable look". "We have provided the missing link to foreign investors after opting for Friday as a working day", claimed a leading member of the Karachi Stock Exchange adding "after the internationalisation of the KSE through the Reuter cable network it was long overdue". DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS 961010 ------------------------------------------------------------------- KSE reverts to Friday as holiday ------------------------------------------------------------------- Staff Reporter KARACHI, Oct 9: The Board of Directors of the Karachi Stock Exchange again decided on Wednesday to observe Friday as closed holiday, reversing its last weeks decision to switch over to Sunday , apparently to defuse tension caused by a campaign launched by some religious parties against this change. Sunday will again be a full working day and Friday a closed holiday for the stock traders, said a member of the KSE. There was no official word from the bosses of Lahore and Islamabad stock exchanges but they would follow their apex body, dealers said. Although there were some dissenting voices about the snap reversal and that, too, on some external pressure, a general body meeting of the KSE , which met here on Wednesday, decided to respond to the call of some prominent religious parties to maintain the sanctity of Friday. The Board of Directors of the Karachi Stock Exchange had decided on Oct 1 last to declare Friday a working day from Oct 4, in response to Federation of Pakistan Chambers of Commerce and Industrys call and to express solidarity with the business community. Though the decision was bold , it seemed to have been taken a bit hastily, without taking into account the objective political conditions and the great divide between the contenders of power, said a member of the KSE. But some others said the decision was not final and might be reviewed after a month. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS 961005 ------------------------------------------------------------------- Peace in Afghanistan to open a vital trade route ------------------------------------------------------------------- M. Ziauddin The dramatic developments that have occurred across Durand Line in recent weeks augur well for Pakistan's economy in more than one way. With the Kabul government falling to forces committed to bringing the eight year long fractional war to an end and rising hopes in the wake, of restoration of peace in a country that had remained in the grip of bloody turmoil for more than 16 years, it is anticipated that two-way trade between Pakistan and Afghanistan will soon be normalised and formalised. Secondly, the transit trade which has over the years degenerated into a vehicle of smuggling, especially after the Afghan war, is expected to come under the discipline of international law impinging on such trade between two neighbouring countries once normalcy returns to Pakistan's land-locked northern neighbour. Thirdly and more importantly, the trade routes between Pakistan and the resource-rich central Asian countries which pass through Afghanistan would hopefully become, as a result, secure from brigands of disparate warlords desperately looking for money and provisions to sustain their bloody misadventures. War-ravaged Afghanistan produces next to nothing today and has become totally dependent on supplies from neighbouring countries, mostly Pakistan. Because the Iran-Afghanistan border is not as porous as that of Pakistan- Afghanistan. In recent years Pakistan has suffered continuously from food shortages because of unchecked smuggling of these items across the Afghan border. This has had two unwelcome effects on Pakistan's economy. Shortages push up prices of food items domestically causing the rate of inflation to shoot up, which in turn affects the rupee exchange rate. Secondly, the country is forced to import food items to overcome domestic shortages which in its wake causes the import bill to get out of control widening the trade gap which again impacts adversely on the rate of exchange. As a result of these two-prong negative pressures on the rupee, the Pak currency has been taking a tumble on a daily basis for a long time now. This situation could be overcome more than adequately, if Pakistani producers of food items and manufactures, especially those in NWFP and on Punjab-NWFP border were to build up their inventories, keeping in view the 20 million strong market of Afghanistan but not before establishing firm links with legitimate import houses in Afghanistan. Today Afghanistan is not in a position to match its imports from Pakistan with exports to this country, and neither does it earn enough hard currency from any other sources to pay for these imports, it would be advisable if Pakistan were to agree to allow the two-way trade in local currencies (Afghans and rupees). The Afghan transit trade has assumed the proportion of almost a menace for Pakistan's economy. The smuggling which it facilitates not only robs the government of its revenue, but it also impacts adversely on Pakistan's manufacturing sector by promoting dumping of high quality competitive items in Pakistani markets. Pakistan can tackle the issue by entering into an agreement with a legitimate government in Kabul to lift all economic barriers between the two countries and let all imports meant for Afghanistan from beyond Pakistan carry import duties at the same rates as charged for goods meant for Pakistan (very soon the difference would become very negligible as Pakistan is obliged under the WTO agreement to drastically slash its import tariffs). These duties should be collected by Pakistan customs and then passed on to the Afghan government after these goods enter Afghanistan. In a way, what is being proposed here is a gradual integration of the economies of the two countries, one of which is land-locked, for mutual benefit. There is nothing wrong in doing so, because already Pakistan is engaged in similar exercises in SAARC on the one hand and in ECO on the other which also includes Afghanistan. Being an economically better-off neighbour, Pakistan could also negotiate with the Afghan government a transit fee to be payable in hard currency by Islamabad to Kabul for the movement of goods to and from Central Asian countries and Pakistan through Afghanistan. Traders from Central Asian countries who wish to use the Afghan/Pakistan trade routes to trade with countries beyond Pakistan could also be invited to enter into such negotiations with Afghanistan and Pakistan separately. Pakistani businessmen could also probe the possibilities of setting up joint ventures having clear comparative advantages in Afghanistan in collaboration with Afghan nationals as well as other Central Asian entrepreneurs keeping in mind the expanding markets of ECO and beyond. Peace in Afghanistan has become the key to prosperity of the entire region. It is, therefore, imperative that any attempt by any force to bring normalcy and restore peace in the country should not only be welcomed but actively supported by all countries whose vested economic interests are linked to this peace. It would be too naive at this juncture to predict the future of the Taliban government in Kabul. But the way this faction has speedily taken control of the entire country and rendered all other factions, as of today, either totally irrelevant or of no consequence, makes them the new force with which Pakistan will have to deal with in the immediate future. Therefore, Islamabad should take full care not to put a wrong foot forward at this juncture. The Rabbani faction which had ruled the country immediately after and since Najib was ousted had shown on a number of occasions through its deeds and utterances that it had misgivings about the intentions of Islamabad. It would be a waste of time to debate at this juncture how right or wrong the Rabbani faction was. What should not be forgotten is the fact that during Rabbani's tenure, a schoolbus carrying Pakistani children was hijacked by a group of Afghans soon after Islamabad sealed off the borders to reduce smuggling through the vehicle of transit trade. Next, the Pakistani embassy was ransacked by Afghans in Kabul seriously injuring the Pakistani ambassador and some high officials. No transit trade of significance between Pakistan and Central Asian states was allowed by the Kabul government during this period. In fact, a number of trade caravans were looted by bandits backed by warlords. And finally, the skies over Afghanistan were not considered safe for flying Pakistani aircraft as long as Rabbani was ruling the roost in Kabul. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS 961005 ------------------------------------------------------------------- Moody's poor rating to increase cost of borrowing ------------------------------------------------------------------- Dr Farrukh Saleem MOODY'S INVESTORS SERVICE, one of world's most influential credit rating agency, has informed the Government of Pakistan (GOP) that the country's long-term credit rating for foreign currency that currently stands at B-1 would be reviewed, with a distinct possibility of a downgrade. Moody's review process may stretch over a couple of months, but the mere fact that a country's debt is being reviewed (with the possibility of a downgrade) shall scare away investors, raise the cost of GOP borrowing from the international market, and depress the price of both the $150 million Euro-bonds and the $140 million floating rate notes (FRN). Responding to Moody's move, the Karachi Stock Exchange (KSE) also lost an additional 0.28 per cent of its value. Moody's began rating credit in 1909 and has since developed a complex, highly credible "system of gradation by which the relative investment qualities of bonds" are measured. Institutional investors around the world have, over the years, become dependent on how a corporation or a country is rated and Moody's opinion is often treated as the last word on credit- worthiness. The credit rating agency maintains that a "rating change should serve notice that the Moody's observes some alteration in the investment risks of the bond or that the previous rating did not fully reflect the quality of bond as now seen". To be sure, our current rating is nothing to be proud of either. According to Moody's Bond Record Manual, 1994: "Bonds which are rated B generally lack the characteristics of the desirable investment. Assurance of interest and principal payments or of maintenance of other terms of the contract over any long period of time may be small". Technically, GOP-guaranteed bonds already fall into the non-investment grade category which are sometimes referred to as "junk bonds". A survey of Moody's 1994 publication reveals that Pakistan's rating is almost at the very bottom of the pool of countries regularly rated by the agency. Besides Argentina which was rated B1, Indonesia (Baa3), Korea (A1), Malaysia (A2), Mexico (Ba2), the Philippines (Ba3), Turkey (Ba1) and Thailand (S&P, A-) were all, way above Pakistan. The agency at times also allocates a numerical modifier to its generic rating classifications of Aaa to C. "The modifier '1' indicates that the company ranks in the higher end of its generic rating category; the modifier '2' indicates a mid-range ranking; and the modifier '3' indicates that the company ranks in the lower end of its generic rating category". Cold war's end In the pre-Cold War days when the two superpowers were always on the look- out for creating their own areas of influence, strategically located countries (like Pakistan) were always provided meat to chew on by either of the competing powers. In the post-Cold War era, there has already been a serious reduction in the pool of donor money and donor-dependent countries are now required to become more market-oriented. International markets run on pure economics and international providers of investment capital base their investment decisions on ratings. In the international capital arena, rating is to a country what water is to fish. Even under normal circumstances, the possibility of a negative change in credit rating by an internationally recognised credit rating agency is a difficult pill to swallow. It will be specially tough on Pakistan where the economy is under attack from all directions. The IMF has already withheld its tranches under the stand-by agreement, there is repetitive devaluation, depletion of foreign exchange reserves, a massive trade deficit, a banking crisis and a general crisis of confidence in the economy. While the once readily available donor money gradually dries up, our economy would find it difficult to strive without accessing the international capital market. It is expected that between now and the year 2000, our economy shall need an accumulated foreign resource inflow of more than $15 billion. It is not that a lower rating shall halt all foreign investment, but that the cost of attracting investment would sharply go up while a whole class of foreign investors would turn their backs on GOP debt (a large number of Foreign Institutional Investors are barred from investing into poorly rated debt). Debt servicing has already become the single largest expenditure item and any addition to that burden shall simply break the back of the beleaguered economy. In the energy sector, for example, we have previously been able to attract foreign utility investors by guaranteeing an 18 per cent rate of return while a rating downgrade would force us to offer even higher rates of return for attracting any future investment making the already expensive power beyond the reach of consumers. The First Floating Rate Note (FRN) that was offered for subscription in June had to guarantee 2 per cent to 2.2 per cent over and above the comparable treasury while the government shall be forced to offer even higher rates for the contemplated $100 million second FRN. The multi-million dollar financing of PTC receivables, however, not directly related to the rating of sovereign debt, has also been delayed by Citibank for unexplained complications. To be certain, all is not lost yet on the rating front. The rating review process has been initiated on the basis of increased political instability, higher levels of short term debt and the deepening of economic uncertainty. The IMF, on the other hand, is expected to make a crucial decision shortly. If the stand-by agreement is put back on track or a new short term lending support commitment is agreed upon, Moody's Investors Service may, after all, decide on maintaining its current rating. We can, for the time being at least, manage without IMF's money but a nod of approval is what is needed to pacify the shrieking rating agencies and calm cautious, watchful investors. The IMF has been supportive in the past and, in all likelihood, Michael Camdessus can once again be persuaded to offer a helping hand just when the incumbent government needs it the most. It must, however, be understood that we cannot live without foreign capital inflows. Continued expectations from donors shall not bear much fruit and we must eventually compete for scarce capital on the basis of ratings. As our rating goes down, our cost goes up. But, we have already exhausted our allocated quota of sins and another cost increase may mean an end to the economic life that we have become accustomed to. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS 961005 ------------------------------------------------------------------- Private foreign investment in Pakistan ------------------------------------------------------------------- Israr-ul-Haque PRIME MINISTER Bhutto has been resting on her laurels with all that about attracting record foreign investment, signifying the vigour and vitality of the national economy during her regime. In presenting the Federal Budget for fiscal 1996-97 the Finance Minister of State too staked the claim of the regime's "unprecedented economic success" on the same grounds, namely attracting record foreign private investment. Thus waxed eloquent the Finance Minister: "By the grace of Allah, we have attracted $3 billion in foreign private investment in three years. Compare that to 2 billion dollars foreign investment over the last 20 years. Foreign investment does not come without social infrastructure" And, finally he ended upon an exhilarating note of achievement: "The foreign investment is predicated on a sound fiscal management which enjoys the confidence of international finance institutions, including the IMF and the World Bank, on political stability in the country and our ability to project and promote Pakistan as an ideal place of investment". According to Mr. M.I.Lashkar, in the News of June 21 '96, it is evident that the gap of Rs 100 billion between the revenue and expenditure is going to be met out of development aid of Rs 102 billion. The development aid will comprise project aid of Rs 42 billion, community aid of Rs 4.2 billion, fund aid of Rs.13.7 billion and short-term borrowing of Rs. 42.1 billion. Of late, a wave of foreign investment has been sweeping across the developing countries. Studies made by the UN for its World Investment Report show that there has been an upsurge of foreign investment into the developing countries as the industrially developed countries have become less and less attractive for massive investments. While 17 per cent of the Foreign Direct Investment (F.D.I.) went to the developing countries in 1986-1991, the percentage spiralled up to 32 per cent in 1992 and it has since continued to surge forward. The World Bank has estimated that the flow of FDI into the developing countries shot up from $45 billion in 1989 to a whooping $170 billion in 1994 in response to the unification of markets across the world. According to estimates transitional corporations now Control one-third of the World's private sector productive assets. The US and UK are the biggest owners, followed by Japan. Japan dominates in Asia, the United States in Latin American and the European Community countries, and Eastern European and Africa. It is the cheap labour and the locational advantage that has proved a catalyst in triggering off the upsurge of foreign investment into the developing countries. The German worker earns as much in four hours as his Vietnamese counterpart does in a month or the Indian counterpart in 20 days. Many companies in Hong Kong, in order to escape coming under the sovereignty of China, have been planning to relocate themselves in Manila or elsewhere. During recent years when the yen has been constantly rising in value, rendering Japanese exports less competitive, Japanese companies, in order to stay competitive, have been sourcing more and more of their components as well as their entire products from affiliates in other countries. In view of Pakistan being strategically located at the month of the Gulf, commanding easy access to the Middle East and Central Asia, with an abundance of manpower of which a good portion is trained and skilled, has, in its own right become a centre of attraction for foreign investment, and the Government instead of adding any feather to its cap, seems to have failed to fully exploit these highly favourable conditions. The $20 billion MOUs signed by Pakistan in 1994 is nothing more than so many declarations of intent. As against this, New Delhi has approved a total of 4,063 projects financed by foreign investors between 1991 and November, 1995, amounting to $17.5 billion. The much-vaunted MOUs Even these much-trumpeted American M.O.Us of $20 billion have since bogged down in the administrative, economic and financial quagmire of the present regime. The US Ambassador, Mr Thomas Simons, the other day observed publicly that the law and order situation in Karachi had adversely affected the projects of foreign investments. His observations. "Karachi remained the centre of investment. Major American companies were keen to invest here and elsewhere. However, the disturbed situation has held them up from bringing capital. the M.O.Us between American and Pakistan to the tune of 20 billion dollars has suffered from the lethargy and paralysis that could easily be avoided." Subsequently, while speaking at a function arranged by the Rotary Club at Islamabad, he complained of the multiplicity of the Government agencies dealing with the foreign investors and the lack of transparency in processing cases of foreign investment. He also cited a case where one foreign investor was asked out of the way to contribute to the development of canal system. IMF's coercion The M.O.Us have been further stalled because of the IMF conditionalities. The Chairman, Board of Investment, Syed Mohibullah Shah, gave out the other day that the Special Industrial Zone programme which has been the main attraction for foreign investment had received a serious setback as the incentive package consisting of tax exemptions has been withdrawn under the pressure from the IMF and the attempt to persuade the IMF to let the Government revive the incentive package had not succeeded so far. The Government of Pakistan has recently signed a number of M.O.Us with America and other investors of the world of which the Enron Thermal Power Station is going to be set up at Multan designed to generate 754 M.W. at the cost of $670 million with the guaranteed sale of the entire power generated by it at 6.5 cents (or more) by WAPDA with a contact of thirty years. The other one is the Power House that is going to be constructed at Keti Bunder by the Electric Power Asia (CEPA) a leading Hong Kong Company. It would be a coal fired, generating 600 M.W. at the first stage and would carry a guarantee by the Government of Pakistan of 18 per cent return on its capital invested. It would be a gigantic $8 billion US project which would also include exploration and exploitation of the coal reserve in the Thar area in Sindh. The main feature of private enterprise is to bear risks and take initiative and the profit that it earns is the reward for its risk bearing and initiative taking. Both the crucial traits of private enterprise are conspicuous by their absence in both these foreign ventures. These ventures have been guaranteed the sale of their entire power generation at 6.5 cents (or more) per unit. WAPDA will not only be under contractual obligation to buy up the entire power generated but would also be required to take on the entire cost of transmission and distribution, in addition to bearing the losses and thefts in course of transmission and distribution. The cost of power to agricultural, industrial, and domestic consumers would be prohibitive pushing up the cost of living as well as the cost of industrial and agricultural production. As the payment will have to be made in dollars the rupee cost would keep on mounting as the lather would be sliding against dollar. In her briefing to the Press on June 16, 1996, the Prime Minister conceded that government was worried over the fact that it had to pay $4.5 billion annually for the private power in the shape of the price of power produced in the private sector and the price of the furnace oil. whereas its total foreign private investment that the country has attracted during the last three years amounts to only 3 billion dollars as against that it has created a net payment liability of $4.5 billion annually. The bankruptcy of economic policy could go no further. In addition, US investors, under the terms of the contract, would be able to import equipments and machinery free of duty, the power generation would therefore be highly capital-intensive resulting in labour displacement from the power sector. In the case of the CEPA Power House Project a return of 18 per cent on the capital invested has been guaranteed. WAPDA, inspite of frequent increases and progressive rates of its charges and surcharges, has not been able to break even and is incurring huge losses amounting to billions of rupees per annum. There is hardly any venture in public sector in Pakistan which has been consistently earning a return of 18 per cent on its capital investments. To the cost of the generation of power the cost of transmission, distribution and losses in transit will have to be added rendering the cost of the power delivery to the power consumers simply prohibitive. The coal that this Power House near Keti Bunder would be using would be imported and not the coal from the Thar area as originally envisaged at the time of signing the MOUs in October 1994. Why not take up the Kalabagh multi-purpose hydel project which is designed to produce 3,600 MW of power and irrigate 2 to 3 million acres of land where the cost of per unit of power would be much lower and the return to the investment would be much higher. It is reported that the Enron Contract for investment in power generation in India had to be terminated having been found to be too costly and Enron had to sign a revised contract with substantial reduction in the cost. Similarly, it is reported that Gordon Woo ventures in China proved a flop. It remains to be explained why the Government of Pakistan should have rushed to sign such highly non-competitive, rather monopolistic M.O.Us with foreign investors. "Data from the United States Commerce Department reveal that the United States multinationals keep their highest wage jobs and critical Research and Development operations in the US itself. Of the 4.8 trillion US dollars in sales garnered by US multinationals in 1991, parent companies were responsible for 68 per cent largely because value-added products were either produced or packed and sold from US territory. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS 961007 ------------------------------------------------------------------- Modaraba committee to conclude findings ------------------------------------------------------------------- Mohiuddin Aazim KARACHI, Oct 6: The joint scrutiny committee on modarabas will meet next week here to review the progress on its findings against 17 poor-performing modarabas and suggest measures to steer out the sector from the crisis. Headed by a member of Corporate Law Authority Mr Abdul Rahman Qureshi, the committee is made up of representatives from State Bank of Pakistan, Karachi Stock Exchange and Modarabas Association of Pakistan. Though its primary objective is to ascertain the reasons for poor performance of some selected modarabas, the committee can suggest steps to help out the entire modaraba sector. The committee has already received the inspection report on one of the 17 modarabas under scrutiny and that of another one may be ready any time. We would discuss at the next meeting the inspection report on one of modarabas under scrutiny, said a member of the committee who refused to be identified. He added that a similar report on another modaraba was being finalised. He said the committee might call for inspection reports on a few more modarabas after the meeting. The committee that was set up in May this year to study the working of modarabas has already held several sessions to examine the affairs of 17 selected modarabas whose financial position has long been on the decline. It is assigned to ascertain whether the declining performance of these modarabas is because of wilful negligence or due to gross incompetence. The performance of the modaraba sector has fallen to the extent that more than 90 % of them are unable to fetch even the face value of their shares. Modaraba managers link this situation largely to over-regulations and unfavourable policies. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS 961008 ------------------------------------------------------------------- Petroleum prices raised again ------------------------------------------------------------------- Omar R. Qureshi ISLAMABAD, Oct 7: A little over six weeks after the last increase, the federal government on Monday again raised prices of petroleum products. A spokesman for the ministry of petroleum said that the prices of petroleum products have been increased due to price rise in international market. According to the announcement Motor Gasoline (regular) which was selling at Rs 15.42 (minus) octroi will now be available at Rs 15.85. Motor Gasoline (super) which was available at Rs 16.48 will now be selling at 16.95. The prices of petroleum products were last increased on August 20 when the government increased the rates of super grade petrol by 24 paisa per litre and regular grade petrol by 40 per litre. Before this, prices of petroleum products were actually decreased. On July 22, prices of regular grade petrol were lowered by 15 paisa and those of super grade petrol by around 9 paisa. Earlier the government had decreased prices on June 12, decreasing the price of super by around twenty paisa and that of regular grade petrol by 22 paisa. However, the end result of these two decreases and two increases is that the price of regular grade petrol is now 51 paisa more expensive than what it was before the government initiated the first of the two price decreases on June 12. Similarly, the price of super petrol now is a little over 43 paisa higher than that of June 12 decrease. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS 961008 ------------------------------------------------------------------- USDA predicts 9.53m bales of cotton output ------------------------------------------------------------------- Muhammad Ilyas ISLAMABAD, Oct 7: The output of cotton crop is likely to be 9.53 million bales during 1996-97, according to the estimate of the US Department of Agriculture. This is one per cent more than the last years production estimate, although at world level, the cotton yield is shown to have dropped by two per cent by the USDA bulletin World Agricultural Production. This puts the 1996-97 output in Pakistan at only slightly higher by about 0.1 million during 1995-96, although the ministry of food & agriculture claimed the output to have been 10.6 million bales. In the current year, the official estimates vary from 9.7 to 11 million bales, although the situation continues to be fluid because of the pest attack and sudden drop in temperature cotton producing areas. According to the USDA projection, the world cotton production for 1996-97 will be 89.0 bales (of 200 kg. each), down 2.0 per cent from 1995-96. In the United States, production for 1996-97 is estimated at 19.0 million bales, up 6 percent from last season. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS 961010 ------------------------------------------------------------------- Black money now 50% of GDP ------------------------------------------------------------------- Staff Reporter KARACHI, Oct 9: Qazi Masud Ahmad, a research economist of Applied Research Economic Centre (AREC) has estimated current ratio of black economy in Pakistan at 45 to 50 per cent of GDP which comes to about Rs 1,000 to Rs 1,100 billion. In his presentation on Level of Black Economy in Pakistan made on Wednesday, at a breakfast session of Pakistan Corporate Leaders Forum, an affiliate of Economists Conferences, Qazi Masud explained that the black economy ratio is estimated universally on a methodology worked out by a Director of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), Vitotanzi in 80s. Estimation of black economy ratio in accordance with Vitotanzi methodology, he said showed it at 9 per cent in USA, 15 per cent in UK, 28 per cent in India and 39 per cent in Pakistan during 1987. Elaborating on the issue he classified black economy into two components. One component of such economy, he said, is reportable as it generates through legitimate sources but remains unaccounted or concealed to evade all three taxes which are income tax, excise and customs. However, the other component of black economy, he identified, was unreportable as it generates from entirely illegal methods that can be smuggling of goods, drug money and leakages from public finance. The PIDE has however quantified to some extent, the black money being generated through inflow of goods from unauthorised channels but no one has been able to estimate the amount of drug money and leakages from public finance. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS 961010 ------------------------------------------------------------------- SPI shows increase of 0.16% ------------------------------------------------------------------- ISLAMABAD, Oct 9: The Sensitive Price Indicator (SPI) with 1990-91 as base for the week ended Oct 7, 1996 released by Federal Bureau of Statistics showed an increase of 0.16% over the SPI for the preceding week. The SPI showed an increase of 11.46% over the corresponding week of last year (on Oct 7, 1996 over Oct 9, 1995) as against 11.16% in the previous period (on Oct 9, 1995 over Oct 10, 1994). DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS 961010 ------------------------------------------------------------------- Leading scrips tend further lower ------------------------------------------------------------------- Staff Reporter KARACHI, Oct 9: Leading shares on the stock market came in for renewed selling and generally tended further lower in the absence of strong demand from any quarter. There are more sellers than buyers as the heating up of the political scenario continue to inhibit new buying from most of the genuine investors, dealers said. However, there was no panic selling as bulk of the selling was centred around the overvalued shares as a section of investors appeared to be in a haste to get out of the market as early as possible on predictions of further price erosions. The investors and dealers apparently rejoiced the hasty retreat of the KSE board to revert to Friday as closed holiday, although opinions differed from broker to broker. The coming Friday, therefore, will be closed holiday as usual after one weeks change to Sunday. The KSE 100-share index, therefore, shed another 12.15 points at 1,352.93 as compared to 1,365.08 a day earlier as leading base shares fell sharply. An idea of investor reluctance to re-enter the rings may well be had from the fact that Fauji Cement made debut in a falling market. It came on the board at Rs 11 against the face value of Rs 10 and steadily dropped to quote the lowest for the day Rs 5. Although the closing was bit higher at Rs 8, it was below Rs 2 its face value. If the new issues from big business houses such as the Fauji Foundation, which has over a dozen large units in its fold and is known for its good profit-sharing policy, makes such a disappointing debut what investors could expect from others, said a leading floor broker. However, the market was not without some special feature both in terms of large volumes and good gains though on selected counters. Dadabhoy Insurance, for instance, surged by Rs 41 to 85, with 2,800 shares changing hands at this peak level, reflected that selective buyers are there. Hinopak, which announced a good dividend of 50 per cent including 15 per cent interim and bonus shares at the rate of 20 per cent continued to inspire new buying on predictions that it could rise further. It earned a profit of Rs 176m on sale volume of Rs 2.6 bn for the year ended June 30, 1996. It was traded higher by Rs 5.50 on 100 shares. Other good gainers were led by 21st ICP Mutual Fund, Kohinoor Textiles, Nafees Cotton, Shell Pakistan, Dawood Hercules, Wyeth Lab and Grays of Cambridge rising by one rupee to Rs 2. Fourth ICP rose by Rs 10. Although losses dominated the list, most of them were fractional and reflected lack of support rather than large selling from any quarter. Leading losers were led by PSO, which suffered a fresh fall of Rs 7 on renewed selling followed by Engro Chemicals, Gatron, KESC, Brooke Bond, National Foods and Crescent Bank, falling by one rupee to Rs 2.50. Dividend news both from Dadex and Ghemni Leasing at 22.5 and 10 per cent final were good but they came at a time when the market was overshadowed by some other depressing external factors. Both have paid an interim dividend at the rate of 20 and 10 per cent in that order. The most active list was topped by PTC vouches, off 90 paisa on 8.140m shares, followed by Hub-Power, easy five paisa on 5.301m, ICI Pakistan (r), lower 45 paisa on 1.726m, ICI Pakistan down 40 paisa on 1.110m, and FFC- Jordan fertiliser, lower five paisa on 0.724m shares. Other actively traded shares were led by Dewan Salman, up 30 paisa on 0.255m, Fauji fertiliser, steady 15 paisa on 0.360m, MCB, off 75 paisa on 0.138m, and Genertech, lower 35 paisa on 0.117m shares. Trading volume rose to 19.698m shares from the previous 16.696m shares owing to large selling in the current favourites. There were 282 actives, out of which 137 shares fell, while 66 rose, with 79 holding on to the last levels. ------------------------------------------------------------------- SUBSCRIBE TO HERALD TODAY ! ------------------------------------------------------------------- Every month the Herald captures the issues, the pace and the action, shaping events across Pakistan's lively, fast-moving current affairs spectrum. Subscribe to Herald and get the whole story. Annual Subscription Rates : Latin America & Caribbean US$ 93 Rs. 2,700 North America & Australasia US$ 93 Rs. 2,700 Africa, East Asia Europe & UK US$ 63 Rs. 1,824 Middle East, Indian Sub-Continent & CAS US$ 63 Rs. 1,824 Please send the following information : Payments (payable to Herald) can be by crossed cheque (for Pakistani Rupees), or by demand draft drawn on a bank in New York, NY (for US Dollars). Name, Postal Address, Telephone, Fax, e-mail address, old subscription number (where applicable). 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961004 ------------------------------------------------------------------- Democracy is a dirty word ------------------------------------------------------------------- Ardeshir Cowasjee TODAY, in the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, democracy is a dirty word. To borrow Oscar Wildes famous phrase: It is the bludgeoning of the people, by the people, for the people. When this age of democracy dawned in 1988, we had visions of ancient Athens, of Cleisthenes and his reforms that replaced the old tribal constitution with the novel idea that political power should lie with the entire citizen body. We imagined that the revolutionary idea would be introduced whereby all citizens would be equal before the law and would be free to say what they wanted without fear of their rulers, their peers, their fellow citizens, or the mob. We thought that the time had come when the people would be the rulers, and the son of a peasant would be as good as a landlord. We were mad, we were very, very stupid. What we should have known is that the greater majority of those that came into power, posing as the peoples representatives, had not the vaguest notion of the meaning of democracy. All they knew was how to manage their free and fair election victories, how to use, dupe, and buy the electorate. They came to preserve democracy, not to practise it. Of the 130 million people of the country, how many vote, and out of those who vote, how many are literate? The aim of those that claw their way into our parliament is to sit out their full term, by hook or by crook, to justify the amount spent and squandered on being freely and fairly elected, to rob, to plunder, to lie, to cheat, and to exit fatter and richer than when they entered, so as to be able to do it all over again. We have a written constitution, there to ensure that the government works for the betterment of the people and the state and not to their detriment. When it is read it must be read as a whole, and when it is interpreted what must be borne in mind is how it has been abused in the past and how it may be abused in the future. The paramount consideration must always be its original unambiguous spirit and purpose  the larger interest of the state. Elsewhere, it is presupposed that those men and women elected as the peoples representatives possess unimpeachable characters. Not so in our case. Taking into account the quirks and drawbacks of the national character, it has been specifically mentioned in Article 62 that to qualify for election to parliament a person must possess eight specific endowments, the most meaningful being: of good character, sagacious, righteous, non- profligate, honest and ameen. How many of our bludgeoners possess any such qualifications? If the laid- down standards were even liberally followed, we would be left with empty assemblies. As these past eight years have gone by, during which we have suffered three free and fair elections, our representatives have steadily worsened. With the lot we now have, may we hope we have at last reached rock-bottom. There are only two ways in which a sitting government in Pakistan can be constitutionally sent home  one is a vote of no-confidence, the other is dissolution. It is absolutely impossible that any sitting government could lose a vote of no-confidence. Our government goons bully the opposition, abduct legislators and transport them at state expense to safe houses where they are kept at state expense. They win by terrorising and by bribing. Thus, the use of Article 58(2)(b) by the President is the sole way out. Constitutionally speaking, the President is supposed to be neutral, strong, just and generous. Our President, Sardar Farooq Ahmad Khan Tumandar Leghari, failed us. However, of late, realising his own predicament and having satisfied himself that under no circumstances will his former party nominate him for a second presidential term, with the support of the bayonet he is now attempting to walk the straight path. Having fortified himself with yet another free Umra at our expense, he is trying to do the right thing  to weed out corruption. He is likely to endorse, in toto, the lists prepared in Rawalpindi and to recommend punitive action against the persons listed. Should he continue to sail on this new tack, he must be supported. Having changed his approach, having stiffened himself and taken cognisance of the sins of the government he has supported for too long, he should change his life-style and win over the people. President Gonez Arpad of Hungary, for instance, lived in a modest house, answered his own doorbell, made his own toast, boiled his own egg, drove his own car, and did not go hunting and shooting and on pilgrimages at the expense of the Hungarian people. Leghari should try to act as is expected of a leader in this poverty-stricken country, bankrupt and broke, reeling from the ever- increasing blows it has borne over the years. The single brightness in the gloom: the Chief Justice of Pakistan Sajjad Ali Shah, atop the other pillar of equal strength, supported by his brother judges (most of whom have refused to bow to pressure), has finally achieved the implementation of the Supreme Court judgement of March 20, 1996. Adding to our woes is the slaying of Murtaza Bhutto, leader of the terrorist organisation, the AZO, and male head of a political family that deems its birthright is to rule Pakistan. He did not approve of the ruling princes, white, red or black, nor did the princes approve of him. Being the brother of the prime minister, he was a law unto himself and led his own army of unauthorised armed men, many of whom had allegedly trained in India. Days before his killing, in search of one of his lieutenants, Ali Sonara, who had been arrested on a series of charges of terrorism, he and his army raided two CIA posts in Karachi, disarmed and roughed up the police forces. This was an excuse for the authorities to be authoritative, and orders were issued to deal with Murtaza. The Prime Minister, a student of Islamic history, knows that succession is determined by the length of the sword and the sharpness of its blade. She declared that the killing was a conspiracy, that her brother had been murdered. She did not name the conspirators or the suspects. The only person she named was an SSP, Wajid Ali Durrani, who had put himself in charge of the operation of September 20. Without any loss of time, she declared that he was totally innocent of any involvement in the conspiracy. Durrani has links with the Zardari family, was hand-picked by Islamabad and posted as SSP (South), Karachi. Also sent to Karachi by the Prime Minister, a few days prior to the 20th, was Petaro-crony Masud Sharif, Director of the Intelligence Bureau, ostensibly to help out in Sonaras interrogation. So far, apart from Murtaza and his men, a police officer who allegedly suffered a self-suffered injury during the shoot-out on the 20th, has been mysteriously shot and killed. To help clear the haze, Interior Minister General Babar has deputed his own axeman, Rahman Malik, chief of the FIA, to join the investigation team. Worse to follow, the Taliban, trained and armed by Pakistan, the United States and others, have conquered Kabul and are on their way North, a move serious enough for a sick Yeltsin to get out of his bed and take note. The Great Game of last century has resumed. This time, in the mountains, the challenge comes from Mullahs and Maulanas Omar, Ghous, Muttaqi, Hafizullah & Co and their heavily armed men who are taking on Dostum & Co. Whoever be the winner, we will be the losers. I hope the ISI has reported to the Chief of Army Staff, General Jehangir Karamat, the recent exchange between Taliban Ameer-ul-Momineen Mullah Mohammed Omar and his foreign minister Maulana Haji Mohammed Ghous: Who was this man Mortimer Durand and where did he draw his Line the Pakistan keep hankering about? Queried the Ameer. Whoever he was, we know not, and whatever he may have drawn wherever, we see not, was Ghouss reply. Where is our Palmerston? DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS 961005 ------------------------------------------------------------------- What price Taliban victory? ------------------------------------------------------------------- Mazdak THOSE of us hankering to bring back an idealised notion of the past have only to look across the border into Afghanistan to realise what nightmares such daydreams can turn into. Aptly dubbed "donkey boys" by more sophisticated Afghans, the Taliban have, with suspicious speed, taken over Kabul and are now in charge of our unfortunate neighbour's destiny. Although a succession of their predecessors have not left them with brilliant models of governance to follow, the Taliban's initial moves have not exactly been designed to placate their detractors. Indeed, their contempt for the rule of law as well as all norms of civilised behaviour was evident in their first few hours in the Afghan capital. By gunning down and then hanging Najibullah and his brother for days after desecrating the bodies, they signalled that finally Afghanistan had regressed into the stone age. With the Taliban victory has come the most backward attitude towards women in the world. No other society  not even Saudi Arabia  has relegated women to such an inferior position as the Afghans under the Taliban. Although the new leaders of Afghanistan made no secret of their intentions, we tended to dismiss their zealotry and their viciousness as yet another localised bit of nastiness our neighbours had inflicted on themselves. Women in Kandhar and Herat had been virtually incarcerated after the Taliban established their rule in those historic cities. But the reality of Taliban rule came home to us when their rag-tag army rolled into a virtually defenceless Kabul without having to fire a shot. One of their first decrees was to tell women to stop working and stay at home; several women have been severely beaten in public for not adhering to the strict Taliban dress code. Civil servants have been directed to grow beards in six weeks, or else. Children have been ordered not to fly kites. Clearly, such a nation is bound to become first an international pariah and then a basket case. No country with any kind of liberal democratic credentials would want to have anything to do with such a government. No international agency will lend money to a country which treats its women like third class citizens. What are the implications for Pakistan of a Taliban government in Kabul? Apart from the spate of refugees this latest crisis will inevitably cause, there are a number of internal and external problems that will flow from the change of guard in Kabul. For starters, the whole world is convinced that some organisations in Pakistan have helped the most backward group in Afghanistan (or anywhere else for that matter) to gain power, thus pushing that ravaged country back still further. By looking at religious dogma in isolation from a swiftly changing world, we blind ourselves to how the world community views these utopian attempts to recreate an imagined ideal society. For one, the tribal order that existed hundreds of years ago has no relevance to present-day issues and problems. The world has shrunk too much to think we can go our own way. The only reason Saudi Arabia can insulate itself from notions like democracy and human rights is that it has the oil wealth to buy off internal and external pressures. We do not have this luxury. It is not tenable to ascribe sundry excesses to our faith because Islam certainly does not condone torture, execution without due process or the subjugation of women. On the contrary, it was an enlightened religion when it was revealed and has enjoined justice and good governance on rulers. For the Taliban or our own home-grown begots to use the scriptures in support of their poisonous words and cruel deeds is utterly outlandish. Almost inevitably, all obscurantist movements and parties place heavy emphasis on curtailing women's rights. It is almost as if religious zealots feel threatened by them. Indeed, they alienate much of the civilised world by their archaic desire to lock up half the population in an era where women are more active in every field than ever before. And while some of our religious preachers keep predicting the imminent collapse of an "immoral" Western society, we can see that the same society is making rapid progress while we stand still. Or, if the Taliban among us have their way, go back to the stone age. An inevitable consequence of the change in Kabul will be the strain the Taliban victory will put on our relations with Iran. The reason we supported the Taliban is that in our calculus, they have the best chance to impose peace in Afghanistan, thus finally giving us access to Central Asia. Fat chance. It is inevitable that the Tajiks and other non-Pushtun elements will hole out in the north and continue to fight on with help from their brethren in the Central Asian Republics. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS 961007 ------------------------------------------------------------------- Who is conspiring against whom? ------------------------------------------------------------------- Ayaz Amir ALTHOUGH, as every last newspaper reader in the country is aware by now, Ms Bhutto of the swinging gait and the sharp handbag has been tempting the fates, the furies and the other elemental forces which bring mortals to their doom, the game is still not lost for her. Even at this late hour she can retrieve it provided she can rein in her hard instincts and remove the blinkers from her eyes. President Farooq Leghari has not taken to his assertive role in a void. If anyone has pushed him to it, it is Ms Bhutto herself. Indeed, with the entire country virtually howling that he should do something, the President would have had to be made of stone not to try even now to bring the government to its senses. It is only the malicious, therefore, who will charge him with intriguing against the bastions of democracy. No such game is afoot in Islamabad. Neither the President is scheming against Ms Bhutto nor for that matter the top brass of the army which has no desire to act as the fire brigade of democracy. Hard though it may be for hardened conspiracy theorists to believe, both want the democratic system to be strengthened and for the system itself to correct the failings of Pakistani-style democracy. If there is any conspiracy afoot, the strands of it are being woven by the government itself, through its pure blindness and its refusal to see the light. If the government stands discredited, as it surely is, it is not because of any misinformation campaign mounted by its enemies. Through their actions and their brazenness the men and women (what need to recount their names?) running this latter-day Mughal court which passes for the government of Pakistan would have discredited a nunnery or a college of cardinals. The question therefore is not what the President might do or what the army is likely to support. It is altogether different: can Ms Bhutto read the writing on the wall and, having performed this arduous task, can she bring herself to change her ways? The age of miracles might have passed but if she can suffer this transformation she can still, conceivably, sort out the mess in which she and her government are mired. It was a Hitlerian maxim that one should always concentrate on the essential and eschew ruthlessly the non-essential. Ms Bhuttos great contribution to the art of government has been to focus her formidable energies relentlessly on the non-essential. In the process she has manufactured artificial crises which the government, to the exclusion of other business, is then required to resolve. The crisis with the judiciary, a prime example of the non-essential, need never have erupted. But through a mixture of short-sightedness and arrogance once it had, it should have been quickly settled. After all, Ms Bhuttos survival, which must be the first concern of every politician, did not hang upon the outcome. Similarly, the President, given a measure of sensitivity on the governments part, need never have been goaded into his present mode of self-assertiveness. But this having come to pass, wisdom lies in moving fast on accountability, which the Presidents message to Parliament desires, thus pre-empting further strictures or action from that quarter. But the question again is: is Ms Bhutto capable of curbing her instinct to tilt at windmills? The omens certainly are not propitious. It is not only that temperament (more than character) is destiny. Ms Bhutto is also hamstrung by the quality of the people she is surrounded by. What good is it possible to expect from a dispensation whose Chief Magician is Mr Ahmed Sadiq, Lead Trumpeter Mr Kharal and Chief Policeman General Babar? These names are taken at random. There is not a sliver of independent thinking in all the glittering array of Ms Bhuttos court. Who then is to tell her of the elder von Moltkes dictum that cardinal strategic errors should not be made because once committed they are impossible to rectify? The fight with the Supreme Court was one such error. The straining of ties with the Presidency another. In this dialectics of strategy consider for a moment the plight of the hapless people of Pakistan. If through a supreme act of self-control Ms Bhutto forsakes her fight with the windmills, all that will happen is that her present stricken chances of completing her term will improve. Otherwise, will it have the slightest effect on the public good? It needs to be remembered that all the crises afflicting the Pakistani state over the last ten or twenty years have revolved around issues of power, not the welfare of the people. Bhutto vs Zia, Zia vs Junejo, Ghulam Ishaq Khan vs Benazir, Ghulam Ishaq Khan vs Nawaz Sharif: what was the relevance of these mighty battles to the common man whose lot has been to carry the burden of the extravagance and maladministration of the Pakistani state? And now Farooq Leghari vs Benazir Bhutto. This struggle is different from its forerunners if only because some issue of principle rather than of naked power is involved. All the same, even if it is satisfactorily resolved it takes a leap of faith to imagine that the frontiers of the extravagant state will be rolled back or that work will start in earnest to erect a more caring dispensation. What a big deal is being made of corruption these days. But every one is aware of the hurdles in the path of bringing the corrupt to book. Even if an independent accountability commission is set up it would need an army of honest and vigilant investigators to come up with cases with evidence hard enough to stand the test of judicial scrutiny. We have seen in the recent past that even when governments have been bent upon victimisation, all the states resources have not been sufficient to bring foolproof cases before the courts. That is why every politician, general and bureaucrat worth his salt against whom a charge of corruption is brought is proudly able to declare his innocence. Admittedly, an independent accountability commission (if government and opposition, overcoming their misgivings, can set about agreeing on one) will be a step forward in the present situation but it will face an uphill task. Fat cats in the business of making money by foul means are usually not in the habit of leaving any traces behind. In the capital it is no secret as to the governmental and bureaucratic figures who have grown fat on the slime and corruption of the last three years. But even if that bright day dawns when a crusade is launched against the pot-bellies of Islamabads richest and finest, what will be the chances of bringing them to book? According to our Anglo-Saxon legal system, the onus of proving guilt rests with the prosecution, the most consummate blackguard being considered innocent unless otherwise proved. Unless the spirit of the proposed anti- corruption laws is changed so as to put the burden of proving innocence on the shoulders of the defendant against whom a prima facie case of corruption can be made, cleansing the national stables will not be an easy task. But all this is to anticipate the future. At the moment both sides in Parliament are yet to go beyond their thunderous rhetoric about corruption and get down to actual legislation even though they are well aware that delay in this regard would be fatal as it would compel the President to weigh other options in order to force the governments hands  options not necessarily to the oppositions advantage. Will Ms Bhutto, therefore, recognise the necessity of taking urgent measures to meet the challenges she faces or, true to her temperament, will she keep giving hostages to fortune? In this predicament she could do worse than to consider what Edward Crankshaw (a biographer of Bismarcks) has to say about the masters ability to conduct an abrupt retreat: ...he knew better than anyone in the world how to go into reverse and extricate himself from a difficult situation. The trick was quite simple: it was to stop what he was doing and do the opposite without asking whether he could afford to lose face. He was one of the very few public men to understand that if you do not care about face you have nothing to lose. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS 961010 ------------------------------------------------------------------- Pakistan and global disarmament ------------------------------------------------------------------- Benazir Bhutto WITH the madness of the cold war behind us, today, nuclear disarmament is both more feasible and more imperative. It is essential that we at last heed the very first resolution of the UN General Assembly and begin the elimination from national arsenals of atomic weapons and all other weapons of mass destruction. No one needs these weapons  including the current nuclear powers. And if the armaments are retained, they will only be more improved and are likely to proliferate. And in these uncertain times, the danger of nuclear miscalculation or accident is greater than ever before. Pakistan finds itself squarely in the middle of the nuclear conundrum, and we stand firm in our support of both nuclear and conventional arms control and disarmament both globally and regionally. For instance, last month in the Geneva Conference on Disarmament, Pakistan and 27 other non-aligned countries proposed a specific plan for the complete elimination of nuclear weapons. In fact, even the International Court of Justice has ruled that the nuclear powers have an obligation to undertake good- faith negotiations for nuclear disarmament. I certainly hope these talks begin in the Geneva Conference early next year. Nuclear disarmament is just one side of the coin, however, with nuclear non-proliferation being the other important issue. This is of particular importance to Pakistan, given the development of Indias nuclear weapons programme. Although we voted in favour of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in 1968 and have supported a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, India has been particularly resistant to any and all efforts to free our region from the nuclear threat. When Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru inaugurated Indias Atomic Energy Commission in 1948, he spoke of the use of nuclear technology for protection. By contrast, when Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto began the Karachi Nuclear Power Reactor in 1972, he called for the creation of a nuclear weapons free zone in South Asia. Since 1974, India has been the sole opponent in the region to a zone of this type. Beginning as early as the 1950s, India was assisted by many advanced countries in developing its nuclear programme, mostly outside international safeguards. Pakistans repeated and explicit warnings that India would misuse its civil facilities to build nuclear bombs were ignored. Then, when India conducted its nuclear explosion in May 1974, Pakistan was confronted with tangible evidence of an open nuclear threat. Perversely, our International Atomic Energy Agency-sponsored nuclear energy programme was the primary victim of the Indian explosion. All peaceful nuclear co- operation with Pakistan was stopped, and penalties were imposed on us for obtaining the same technologies that had been readily available to India. The United States joined in with a series of laws that were aimed against Pakistans programme while ignoring Indias proliferation activities. And after 1991, the Pressler Law halted virtually all co-operation between Pakistan and America. Fortunately, the actions of Sen. Hank Brown and President Bill Clinton have begun to redress this injustice. Despite repeatedly being the scapegoat of the international community, Pakistan has continued to make proposal after proposal to promote non- proliferation in South Asia. Among the suggestions we have made and India has rejected are: simultaneous signature of the non-proliferation treaty, simultaneous acceptance of IAEA regulation, reciprocal inspection of each others nuclear facilities, joint renouncement of the acquisition, manufacture and deployment of nuclear weapons on our soil, and a regional conference on non-proliferation. More recently, Pakistan has proposed the creation of a Zero Missile Zone in South Asia, and once again, a deafening silence prevails in New Delhi. For over 40 years, India has masked its nuclear ambitions by posing as the champion of nuclear disarmament. It spurned Pakistans proposals for regional non-proliferation in South Asia on the grounds that it could accept only global measures. But this hypocrisy has been exposed by Indias recent solitary opposition to the test-ban treaty. How has the international community responded to Indias obstinacy? With appeasement and supplication, thereby emboldening Indias leaders. Now, preparations are underway for a second nuclear test at Pokharan, and short- range Prithvi missiles are in the process of being deployed along our common border. In addition, India is now testing the Agni medium-range missile. US Secretary of Defence William Perry has rightly described South Asia as the most dangerous place in the world. And Pakistan is committed to giving a matching response to any nuclear escalation by India. It is essential, then, to find a resolution to this crisis. This could be accomplished through three interrelated goals: a just and peaceful solution to the Kashmir dispute, negotiation of agreements on conventional arms control, and non-proliferation arrangements beginning with some measures for nuclear self- restraint, such as the restriction of missile deployment and an end to nuclear tests. Such a comprehensive dialogue was rejected by India two years ago, but we remain willing to try. The world community must recognise that a solution to the problems of conflict, arms control and non-proliferation in South Asia is essential for the safety of everyone. Nuclear weapons are a global problem  and they require a global solution.Copyright 1996 Creators Syndicate, Inc.



961005 ------------------------------------------------------------------- Cricket in Kenya ------------------------------------------------------------------- By Mohammad Shoaib Ahmed When the Sri Lankan and Kenyan captains went in for the toss in Gymkhana Ground Nairobi on September 27, to mark the start of the first match of the four-nation tournament between the two countries, Kenya became the 14th country and 104th centre to stage a one-day International. Such matches have been played on 111 grounds. If the two grounds in London, Lord's and The Oval, are treated as separate ODI centres. Colombo has stayed one-day International at three different grounds while Ahmedabad, Bombay, Hobart and Rawalpindi each have hosted these matches at two different grounds. Cricket in Kenya was first played in Mombassa on the coast at the turn of the century. The game began to spread as the country developed. The major fixture of the year being the three-day officials vs Colonial settlers, first played in 1910. European and Asian (people from the sub-continent) developed along separate lines as the Europeans formed the Kongoni Cricket Club in 1927 and the Asian, the Asian Sports Association, which started in 1933. In 1953 the Kenya Cricket Association was formed, uniting the Asian and European organisations. The year 1963 over the visit of MCC side led by M.J.K. Smith. Cricket until then was played on matting wickets. The first turf wickets were laid at Nairobi Club in 1969 and Suleiman Verjee Indian Gymkhana in 1973. The triangular tournament with Uganda and Tanganjika (now Tanzania) began in 1966 and was played on an annual basis, rotating from country to country. Zambia joined in 1973. Since mid-60s numerous clubs and representative sides have visited Kenya, including Hyderabad Blues, Rajisthan, Warwickshire, Nigeria, Denmark, Combined Countries XI, Bangladesh, Pakistan "B", India as well as England "A" and Zimbabwe, both of whom were beaten by Kenya in one-day games. Kenya participated in a tour to England in 1972 as part of an East African cricket conference side and also took part in the first World Cup in 1975 under that banner. Kenya withdrew from the East African cricket conference in 1981 and toured UK in 1984 as guests of Minor Countries. Kenya has taken part in the past four ICC tournaments in 1982, 1986, 1990, 1994. In 1990 Kenya reached the semi-finals for the first time losing an exciting match to host Holland. The 80s saw the emergence of some fine young African players, nine of whom made the squad to the 1990 ICC tournament. This augurs well and is one of the main reasons why Kenya looks forward to a bright future for cricket. When the Indian team stopped here on their way home from the South African tour for a friendly game in 1993, captain Azharuddin was full of admiration for the indigenous Kenyans. "Right kind of training and they could blossom into international stuff," observed the Indian skipper. Kenya has excellent infrastructure and together with Ireland Bangladesh are the only associate countries with grass wickets. Four years ago Collin Eager, former President of Australian Cricket Board passed through Kenya and after looking at the grounds he was amazed at the excellent infrastructure and complimented the Kenyans on the quality of the wickets provided. Many ex-Indian Test players play for the local club as professionals. Players like Sandeep Patil, Balwinder Singh Sandhu, Chanderkant Pandit and Ghulam Parkar have been playing for the last five years while Inshuman Gaikwad, Raju Kulkarni, Dilip Vengsarkar and Vinod Kambli have done short stints with some of the clubs. Who would have expected Kenya to beat the West Indies? It was a big surprise West Indies once deemed invincible in the limited overs games and twice world champions, were humbled and humiliated by Kenya. If the Kenyans failed to use that stunning success as a springboard, then you can put that down to inexperience. For, there is no doubting their talent. Are said and done the Kenyans have succeeded in making a mark for themselves and, with greater exposure in future they might as well to knocking at the doors of test cricket. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS 961005 ------------------------------------------------------------------- Needed: a clear-cut selection policy ------------------------------------------------------------------- By Lateef Jafri THE recent string of illness and injuries among seasoned players has considerably depleted the forces trying to measure strength with the formidable assemblage of cricketers that South Africa and world champions Sri Lanka have in their ranks. The woes of the visiting squad in Kenya were compounded when even captain Wasim Akram, not in full health, had to rush back to the Punjab metropolis to attend on his father, having suffered a massive stroke. However, the choice of the players to fill the breach created by such experienced campaigners as Inzamamul Haq, Mushtaq Ahmed and Aamir Sohail and latterly the dispatch of a replacement for Wasim betrayed utter confusion among the selectors for the time being reduced to a membership of two instead of the original and normal three. It also gave the impression, rather superficially, to the fans and followers of the game of extreme dearth of talent at home, whatever may be the activities of cricket round the year and official schedule of tournaments as chalked out by the board itself. Initially the selectors spurned the demand of the tour committee, which included two of its ex-officio members viz skipper Wasim Akram and cricket manager Mushtaq Mohammad, for certain players and opted for a junior bowler, who was on tour of the Caribbean with the second string. Certainly his inclusion would strain the physical capabilities of Waqar Younis, Saqlain Mushtaq, the regular bowlers, and Salim Malik, who is only a casual and change bowler. Besides once the Waqar and Wasim combination, the two fastest of contemporary speed merchants, is broken, the former may be contained and countered, with comparative ease, by the opposing batsmen. It was surprising how one player, the junior Shahid Afridi, a leg breaker, would have made up for the absence of a wily spinner of world class and invariably an insoluble problem for the batsmen. Later on when Aamir Sohail also voluntarily opted out the Chief selector, Salim Altaf, had to make telephonic communication with his associate in Karachi, Zaheer Abbas, and it was decided that all vacancies, caused due to unfortunate circumstances, would be filled. Ramiz, a former captain, and Saeed Azad, a middle order batsman, were chosen to accompany the altered conglomerate for Kenya. After one match in the quadrangular in Nairobi Wasim Akram too flew back home, leaving the selectors in a quandary. As media reports indicate the selectors tried to locate Mohammad Akram, presently in England, but could not contact him. Their choice, Mohammad Zahid, a raw pacer, came as a complete surprise to the cricket watchers. Everybody thought if at all the Kenya one-dayers are to be taken seriously and are not to be written off then Aqib Javed will get the chance. A hard trier with control over line and length, Javed has the scalps of many an organised batsman. He challenges the willow-wielders with his skilful pacers from the very first ball. Then his energy, rhythm and accuracy earn the appreciation of the onlookers. It is still not known why he is being passed over though the selectors' chief says he will get his pound of flesh during the coming season when foreign teams will be visiting this country. The game's officials, cricket manager included, have been stressing that they are building up a squad for the next World Cup. However, if talented cricketers like Aqib Javed and Rashid Latif, who was twice mentioned as an essential requirement, once it was known that the knee problem of Mushtaq and Inzamam has aggravated, are ignored how the hunt for new faces for future will be successful. One finds that Zahid, with 22 wickets last season, has superseded Ali Gohar (47 wickets), Sajid Shah (46 scalps), Ather Laiq (40 victims) and gutsy all-rounder Aamir Hanif (36 wickets) to name only a few from a long list of fine performers. The logic behind the selection of Ramiz Raja and Saeed Azad cannot be understood. Ramiz, 34, had his baptism in Test cricket thirteen years ago and must now be at the end of his career. He is not a brisk strokeplayer for limited-overs ties. As can be seen from the scorecard in the match against low-rated Kenya he returned to the pavilion with a duck to his credit. Besides, how many openers are required in the line-up? The selection of Saeed Azad, whose contribution in the match against Kenya was just 1, can hardly be justified. His score in an earlier exposure against Sri Lanka in Rawalpindi last year (a match lost by Pakistan) was insignificant. But why exclude Asif Mujtaba, a tried all-rounder, Sohail Jaffar (1,465 runs last season), Mohammad Nawaz (1,205 runs), Azam Khan (1,281 runs). The last-mentioned can be utilised at any position. Many are doubtful if the decisions of the selectors are based purely on merit. There is no clear-cut policy but experiments and makeshift arrangements. One hopes that after the selectors trio is complete with the endorsement of former Test all-rounder Ejaz Fakih by the Council an in-depth discussion will take place on the right mode and method of selection. The quality players  batsmen, bowlers and all-rounders  are not in short supply in the country but fair judgement is needed for a balanced outfit and for lifting home cricket. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS 961005 ------------------------------------------------------------------- Points to ponder for sports policy ------------------------------------------------------------------- Alauddin Ghuari The Federal Sports Minister, like his predecessors, has gone on record to state that the National Sports Policy would soon be announced. However, it is to be seen as to when this long-standing commitment is honoured. We do not know as to what briefing he has received and by whom and whether or not various causes leading to the dismal state of sports have been brought to his notice. In our humble opinion the Sports Minister should keep the following facts in mind. It is an accepted and recognised fact that Pakistan occupied a very respectable place in Asia during the first fifteen years of its existence. This country won 13 medals in the 2nd Asian Games in 1954; 26 in 1958 and our tally in 1962 was 28. History is a witness to the fact that these achievements were due to dedication, devotion and sincerity displayed by the Federations. The Federal government promulgated an Ordinance in 1962 and the Pakistan Sports Board (PSB) came into being. The new-born was a bad omen for Pakistan sports as we could only manage 8 medals in 1966 in Bangkok; Pakistan could not, thereafter achieve heights to win 28 medals in any of the subsequent Asian Games. The reason for the sudden fall was the interference by the so called technocrats of PSB using the cover provided by the Ordinance which reads. This Ordinance shall be called the sports development and 'control' Ordinance 1962'. First part i.e. development, was totally ignored and the bureaucrats of PSB exploited the word control to their own advantage. Development to the bureaucrats meant building of an odd stadium, swimming pool and raising the economic standards of sportsmen. The PSB, with a view to exercising tight and full control over the sports bodies, completely alienated honest and devoted sports administrators which caused abrupt decline in the standards and of course success role. Comparative amply confirm and prove the pound. Success of any policy and system depends on the persons who implement it. Those responsible to ensure the success of the 1962 policy, however, demonstrated lack of sense of purpose and loyalty thus causing irreparable damage to the policy itself. The PSB did not pay any attention towards development of sports or infrastructure as people at the helm were neither mentally nor technically equipped for the task. The National Institute of Sports and Culture (NISC) a high sounding name established in 1975, has NOT done anything to justify its establishment or to help develop positive mental attitude of sportsmen which is the top prerequisite to improve standards. News media, particularly electronic, plays an important role in the promotion of sports in any country. It is highly regrettable that the PTV does not have its own sports policy. Its sole consideration to fill its coffers. The Sports Minister can use both PTV and NISC to help develop positive mental attitude. The latter under the existing conditions should either be abolished or placed under the PSB. It is an irony of fate that the officials connected with sports misused and misinterpreted the meanings of the word 'control 'used in the said Ordinance. All sports bodies, the world over, affiliated with the international sports organisations, carry out their functions in accordance with their constitution. Sports bodies of a country are controlled by their parent international federations. Similarly, all international federations are governed in accordance with the International Olympic Committee charter. Sports officials do not have the right or authority to exercise control over indigenous sports federations. They need only to regulate the functioning of these bodies within the bounds of respective constitutions. The misuse of the word 'control' has brought two important institutions of sports i.e. Federations and PSB, to a state of confrontation rather than co-operation to the determent of both on the one have partial approach towards certain games has further aggravated the situation and on the other the enthusiasm and desire to improve economic standards of athletes has totally destroyed the club system which in the real sense helped to promote the standards through discipline. Semi-government institutions fully exploited the situation to their advantage and managed to lure top athletes. The intention was also to deny services of the top athletes to other institutions. This policy took away the competitive spirit resulting in premature retirements. These institutions are wasting a huge sum on non-promotional measures. The PIA sports, for example is headed by a Director who is assisted by 6 GMs. The huge amount of money spent on their salaries, perks, facilities and TA/DA could have been better spent on the development of the games and expansion of facilities. Similarly the patronage of those sports which have glamour and ignoring of others which have talent in abundance in the country wrought havoc. Why are sports like athletics boxing and swimming meted out step motherly treatment by these institutions which also come under some ministry? The government should in consultation with POA and Federations lay down terms and conditions including national pay scales for the employment of sportsmen at the national and provincial levels. The Minister of Sports has the right and authority to formulate sports policy. It may, however, be advisable and prudent to assess the performance of the institutions and sports set ups at the Federal and provincial levels. His efforts would be productive if he ensured that necessary infrastructure exists and sports flourish in a conducive atmosphere. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS 961007 ------------------------------------------------------------------- S. Africa lift cricket cup with 7-wkt win over Pakistan ------------------------------------------------------------------- Ilyas Beg NAIROBI, Oct.6: Showing in a thoroughly professional manner, South Africa beat Pakistan by seven wickets to lift the four-nation cricket trophy at the Nairobi Gymkhana ground on Sunday afternoon. Nothing went right for the Pakistan team, comprising half a dozen young players who came as replacement for the injured stars, during this all- important match of the competition. Pakistan were shot out for 203 in 46.2 overs after acting captain Saeed Anwar had won the toss and opted to bat first on a pitch full of runs. Alan Donald, Brian McMillan and David Crookes bowled superbly on this batting pitch and restricted Pakistan to a low and manageable score. Later, despite South Africa having lost two wickets on two consecutive deliveries from young leg-spinner Shahid Afridi, Gary Kirsten batted like a sheet-anchor to take his side home. He was lustily cheered by a strong jam-packed crowd of 12,000 when declared as Man of the Final. By dint of excellent performance throughout the competition, Alan Donald earned the Man of the Series award and a prize of 3000 dollars. Pakistan team captain Saeed Anwar got the runners-up trophy and an award of 25,000 dollars while South African captain Hansie Cronje was awarded a beautiful trophy (depicting traditional Kenyan wildlife) and a cheque of 50,000 dollars. Not a single Pakistani batsman could score a half-century. That was because of the dominance of the South African bowlers despite many dropped catches and fielding lapses early in the Pakistan innings. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS 961007 ------------------------------------------------------------------- Afridi made three records, not two ------------------------------------------------------------------- Sports Reporter KARACHI, Oct 6: Shahid Khan Afridi during his whirlwind knock of 102 from 40 balls against Sri Lanka at Kenya on Friday made three records and not two, investigations revealed. The two records mentioned in the agency reports are: quickest 100 from 37 balls surpassing Jayasuriyas 100 of 48 balls; and youngest-ever batsman at 16 to score a one-day century. However, the record which went unnoticed is he has also hit the highest number of sixes in his 100 i.e. 11 which is equal to sixes hit by Jayasuriya in his 134 against Pakistan at Singapore. Previous record of the highest number of sixes in 100 was also with Jayasuriya who had hit seven sixesfour less than Shahid Khan Afridi. Shahid Khan Afridis break-up of 102 from 40 balls is: 13 non-scoring shots, eight singles, two twos, six fours and 11 sixes. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS 961009 ------------------------------------------------------------------- Zimbabwean team arrive, hopeful of giving fight ------------------------------------------------------------------- Our Reporter LAHORE, Oct. 8: Zimbabwe cricket captain Alistair Campbell hoped his side would do well in the coming Test and one-day series against Pakistan. He was talking to newsmen on arrival of the team after a long journey here Tuesday afternoon. Campbell, who was one of the few players to have left a serious impression when Zimbabwe last toured Pakistan in 1993, said his side was much more experienced than three years ago and that he was not much worried over the teams recent drubbing at the hands of Sri Lanka in the Test and one- dayers. It was very early in the season and we got undone by the spinners in Sri Lanka, who are quite formidable at home and have also beaten a number of top Test-playing countries. but we are not unduly worried, he said. Alistair Campbell said his players have worked very hard for the series against Pakistan and would go all out to prove themselves against a mighty opposition. Zimbabwe, he added, were a much more experienced side as compared to 1993 when they last toured Pakistan. I wont say our team is much more stronger than 1993. Its much more experienced...and experience counts a lot. Last time there were a lot of positive things that came out of our play and the Press here wrote very highly of us. I think weve come out leaps and bounds from that. And if we play according to our potential, I am sure we can achieve some results, said Alistair Campbell. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS 961010 ------------------------------------------------------------------- Essex show interest in Saeed Anwar ------------------------------------------------------------------- By Our Sports Reporter KARACHI, Oct 9: Flamboyant Pakistan opener Saeed Anwar is in serious negotiations with English county Essex for the 1996 season, well placed sources said. Essex are looking for Stuart Laws replacement who will be touring England next year with the Australian team for the Ashes. Saeed Anwar, who scored more than 1,000 runs on the England tour earlier this summer, has a tie with Inzamamul Haq for the vacant slot but sources said Anwar may overcome his team-mate and may be announced as Essexs overseas player later this month. Another English county, Surrey, have shown their interest in Pakistan off- spinner Saqlain Mushtaq. Surrey are searching a replacement for Australian Brendon Julian who is also expected to be in England with the Australian side next summer. After Surrey lost Waqar Younis because of their laziness, the English county has now diverted its attention to a spinner and have also held deliberations with Indian Anil Kumble besides Saqlain Mushtaq. Kumble, the Indian vice-captain, had a season with Northamptonshire in 1994 in which he took 105 wickets but was replaced with West Indian Curtly Ambrose. With Northamptonshire having signed Pakistan pacer Mohammad Akram for the 1997 season, indications are either Saqlain or Kumble will be Surreys overseas professional. Wasim Akram (Lancashire), Waqar Younis (Glamorgan), Mushtaq Ahmad (Somerset) and Mohammad Akram (Northamptonshire) have already confirmed their return to English Championships next season. If negotiations materialise, Saeed Anwar and Saqlain Mushtaq may take Pakistans representation in the summer of England to six.

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